Sunday, July 15, 2012

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2025: Unraveling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle

Note: This article has been published on the Graham Hancock website, Viewzone and Cakravartin. It has been translated into German, and published in the Nexus Magazine, vol. 44, December-January 2013. An abridged version of this article has also appeared in the Science to Sage Magazine, August 2012 issue.

Part 1: Unraveling the Yuga Cycle Timeline

The Yuga Cycle doctrine tells us that we are now living in the Kali Yuga; the age of darkness, when moral virtue and mental capabilities reach their lowest point in the cycle. The Indian epic The Mahabharata describes the Kali Yuga as the period when the “World Soul” is Black in hue; only one quarter of virtue remains, which slowly dwindles to zero at the end of the Kali Yuga. Men turn to wickedness; disease, lethargy, anger, natural calamities, anguish and fear of scarcity dominate. Penance, sacrifices and religious observances fall into disuse. All creatures degenerate. Change passes over all things, without exception.

The Kali Yuga (Iron Age) was preceded by three others Yugas: Satya or Krita Yuga (Golden Age), Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age). In the Mahabharata, Hanuman gives the following description of the Yuga Cycle to the Pandava prince Bhima:

"The Krita Yuga was so named because there was but one religion, and all men were saintly: therefore they were not required to perform religious ceremonies… Men neither bought nor sold; there were no poor and no rich; there was no need to labour, because all that men required was obtained by the power of will…The Krita Yuga was without disease; there was no lessening with the years; there was no hatred, or vanity, or evil thought whatsoever; no sorrow, no fear. All mankind could attain to supreme blessedness. The universal soul was White… the identification of self with the universal soul was the whole religion of the Perfect Age. In the Treta Yuga sacrifices began, and the World Soul became Red; virtue lessened a quarter. Mankind sought truth and performed religious ceremonies; they obtained what they desired by giving and by doing. In the Dwapara Yuga the aspect of the World Soul was Yellow: religion lessened one-half. The Veda was divided into four parts, and although some had knowledge of the four Vedas, others knew but three or one. Mind lessened, Truth declined, and there came desire and diseases and calamities; because of these men had to undergo penances. It was a decadent Age by reason of the prevalence of sin.”[1]

And now we are living in the dark times of the Kali Yuga, when goodness and virtue has all but disappeared from the world. But when did the Kali Yuga begin? And when does it end?

In spite of the elaborate theological framework which describes the characteristics of this age, the start and end dates of the Kali Yuga remain shrouded in mystery. The popularly accepted date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is 3102 BC, thirty-five years after the conclusion of the great battle of the Mahabharata. This is remarkably close to the proposed beginning of the current “Great Cycle” of the Mayan Long Count Calendar in 3114 BC. It is of interest to note that in both of these cases the beginning dates of the respective cycles were calculated retrospectively. The Mayans had recomputed their ancient calendars sometime between 400 BC to 50 CE, at the ceremonial center of Izapa in Mexico, and fixed the starting date of the current Great Cycle of their Long Count Calendar. And in India, sometime around 500 CE, a major review of the Indian calendric systems had taken place. It was during this time that the renowned astronomer Aryabhatta had identified the beginning date of the Kali Yuga as 3102 BC. Why was it suddenly necessary for two ancient civilizations to re-calculate dates that should have been an integral part of their calendric systems? How did such important time-markers slip out of their collective memory? We will revisit these questions later.

It is generally believed that Aryabhatta had calculated the start date of the Kali Yuga on the basis of the information in the Sanskrit astronomical treatise, the Surya Siddhanta, according to which the five “geocentric planets” (i.e. the planets visible to the naked eye) - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - were aligned to 0° of Aries (near the star zeta Piscium) at the beginning of the Kali Yuga. He, thus, arrived at the date of 17/18 February, 3102 BC as the starting point of the Kali Yuga. However, modern simulations carried out by Richard Thompson show that on 17/18 February, 3102 BC, the five geocentric planets occupied an arc of roughly 42°  in the sky and were scattered over three zodiacal signs – Aries, Pisces and Aquarius. This cannot be considered as a conjunction by any means. Far more spectacular ‘alignment’ of planets has occurred in the preceding and succeeding centuries. In other words, the conjunction of geocentric planets at 0° of Aries that was supposedly targeted by Aryabhatta did not take place in 3102 BC. 

Does this mean Aryabhatta made an error in his back calculations? Not really. For, the Surya Siddhanta does not ever specify that such an alignment of planets took place at the beginning of the Kali Yuga. On the contrary, the Surya Siddhanta explicitly states that this conjunction of planets at 0°  of Aries takes place at the end of the Golden Age (Satya / Krita Yuga). The text states: “Now, at the end of the Golden Age (Krita Yuga), all the planets, by their mean motion – excepting however their nodes and apsides – are in conjunction in the first of Aries”[2] Unfortunately, however, this simple statement was misrepresented by some of the early commentators, in their eagerness to find an astronomical rationale for the 3102 BC date, and it has subsequently been promulgated as a fact.

The general understanding in ancient Hindu astronomy was that at the beginning of the present order of things, all the planets commenced their movement together at 0° of Aries; and all the planets return to the same position in the heavens, at certain fixed intervals, resulting in a universal conjunction. The Surya Siddhanta states that this conjunction takes place at the end of the Golden Age. However, there is also a prevailing belief in Hindu astronomy that this conjunction takes place at the beginning of a Day and Night of Brahma, comprising of a 1000 Yuga Cycles.

Similar information regarding the conjunction of planets is also present in the ancient Greek texts. In the Timaeus, Plato refers to a “Perfect Year” which elapses at that moment when the sun, moon and the planets all return to the same relative position despite all their intervening reversals.[3] This idea was echoed by the 3rd century Roman writer Censorinus, who said that the orbits of the sun, moon and the five wandering planets complete one “Great Year of Heraclitus”, when they are brought back together at the same time to the same sign where once they were.[4] This “Great Year” which is known by various other names – “Perfect Year”, “Platonic Year”, “Supreme Year of Aristotle” etc. - was variously represented as being of 12,954 years (Cicero) or 10,800 years (Heraclitus) duration. 

There can be no doubt that the 3102 BC date for the Kali Yuga was not based on any information in the Surya Siddhanta or any other Sanskrit text. The date virtually pops out of nowhere. Before 500 CE, this date was not mentioned in any Sanskrit text. From where, then, did Aryabhatta obtain this date? There seems to be no indication that Aryabhatta had computed this date himself. There is a single, stray reference to this date in the Sanskrit text Aryabhatiya, where Aryabhatta mentions that the text was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. Since the Aryabhatiya was composed in 499 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga can be traced back to 3102 BC. The statement, by itself, does not reveal any information about the astronomical basis on which the date was calculated, or whether the calculation was performed by Aryabhatta himself. It is possible that this date was adopted by Aryabhatta from some other source. The vagueness surrounding the origin of this date makes its validity highly suspect.

The task of figuring out this date from the ancient Sanskrit texts, however, is fraught with difficulties, since a number of inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle information contained within them. As pointed out by Sri Yukteswar, in many Sanskrit texts the 12,000 year duration of the Yuga Cycle was artificially inflated to an abnormally high value of 4,320,000 years by introducing a multiplication factor of “360”, which was represented as the number of “human years” which constitutes a “divine year”. However, certain texts, such as the Mahabharata and the Laws of Manu, still retain the original value of the Yuga Cycle as 12,000 years. Many other ancient cultures – the Chaldeans, Zoroastrians and Greeks – also believed in a 12,000 year Cycle of the Ages.  The renowned Sanskrit scholar and nationalist leader of India, B.G.Tilak had mentioned in his book, The Arctic Home in the Vedas (1903), that:

“The writers of the Puranas, many of which appear to have been written during the first few centuries of the Christian, era, were naturally unwilling to believe that the Kali Yuga had passed away...An attempt was, therefore, made to extend the duration of the Kali Yuga by converting 1000 (or 1200) ordinary human years thereof into as many divine years, a single divine year, or a year of the gods, being equal to 360 human years…this solution of the difficulty was universally adopted, and a Kali of 1200 ordinary years was at once changed, by this ingenious artifice, into a magnificent cycle of as many divine, or 360 × 1200 = 432,000 ordinary years.”[5]

Yukteswar also clarified in the book The Holy Science (1894), that a complete Yuga Cycle takes 24,000 years, and is comprised of an ascending cycle of 12,000 years when virtue gradually increases and a descending cycle of another 12,000 years, in which virtue gradually decreases. Hence, after we complete a 12,000 year descending cycle from Satya Yuga -> Kali Yuga, the sequence reverses itself, and an ascending cycle of 12,000 years begins which goes from Kali Yuga -> Satya Yuga. Yukteswar states that, “Each of these periods of 12,000 years brings a complete change, both externally in the material world, and internally in the intellectual or electric world, and is called one of the Daiva Yugas or Electric Couple.”[6] 

The 24,000 year duration of the complete Yuga Cycle closely approximates the Precessional Year of 25,765 years, which is the time taken by the sun to “precess” i.e. move backwards, through the 12 zodiac constellations. Interestingly, the Surya Siddhanta specifies a value of 54 arc seconds per year for precession, as against the current value of 50.29 arc seconds per year. This translates into a Precessional Year of exactly 24,000 years! This raises the possibility that the current observed value of precession may simply be a temporary deviation from the mean.

The concept of an ascending and descending cycle of Yugas is not a proposition that Yukteswar conjured out of thin air. This idea is still prevalent among the Jains of India, who are one of the oldest religious sects of the country. The Jains believe that a complete Time Cycle (Kalachakra) has a progressive and a regressive half.  During the progressive half of the cycle (Utsarpini), there is a gradual increase in knowledge, happiness, health, ethics, and spirituality, while during the regressive half of the cycle (Avasarpini) there is a gradual reduction in these qualities. Each half cycle is comprised of six smaller periods, and together these two half cycles constitute a complete Time Cycle. These two half cycles follow each other in an unbroken succession for eternity, just like the cycles of day and night or the waxing and waning of the moon. It is possible that Yukteswar may have been influenced by the belief system of the ancient Jains; or he may have based his ideas on ancient oral traditions that are not a part of the mainstream documented knowledge.

The idea of an ascending and descending Cycle of Ages was also prevalent in Greek myths. The Greek poet Hesiod (c. 750 BC – 650 BC) had given an account of the World Ages in the Works and Days, in which he had inserted a fifth age called the “Age of Heroes”, between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. In Hesiod’s Cosmos, Jenny Strauss Clay writes:

“Drawing on the myth in Plato’s Statesman, Vernant also claimed that the temporal framework of Hesiodic myth, that is, the succession of races, is not linear but cyclical; at the end of the age of iron, which he divides into two, the cycle of races starts again with a new golden age or, more likely, a new age of heroes, as the sequence reverses itself…Vernant himself offers a solution when he remarks that ‘there is not in reality one age of iron but two types of human existence.’ ”[7]

This is highly interesting. Jean-Pierre Vernant, who is a highly acclaimed specialist in ancient Greek culture, clearly believes that the Cycle of the Ages reverses itself as per Hesiod’s account. Not only that, he states that the Iron Age has two parts, which corresponds exactly to Yukteswar’s interpretation in which the descending Kali Yuga is followed by the ascending Kali Yuga. We can surmise, in this context, that the “Age of Heroes”, which immediately followed the Bronze Age in Hesiod’s account, must be the name ascribed by Hesiod to the descending Kali Yuga.

The evidence from different sources supports the notion of a complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years, comprised of an ascending and descending cycle of 12,000 years each. This brings us to the question of the relative durations of the different Yugas in the Yuga Cycle, and the transitional periods, which occur at the beginning and end of each Yuga, and are known as Sandhya (dawn) and Sandhyansa (twilight) respectively.  The following values are provided in the Sanskrit texts for the duration of the Yugas and their respective dawns and twilights.

·         Satya Yuga (Golden Age): 4000 years + 400 years dawn + 400 years twilight = 4800 years
·         Treta Yuga (Silver Age): 3000 years + 300 years dawn + 300 years twilight = 3600 years
·         Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age): 2000 years + 200 years dawn + 200 years twilight = 2400 years
·         Kali Yuga (Iron Age): 1000 years + 100 years dawn + 100 years twilight = 1200 years

Since so many inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine, as pointed out by Yukteswar and Tilak, we also need to question the accuracy of the relative durations of the Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts. Although the Yuga Cycle is mentioned in the mythic accounts of around thirty ancient cultures, as described by Giorgio de Santillana, professor of the history of science at MIT, in the book Hamlet's Mill (1969), we find very little information regarding the relative durations of the different ages within this cycle. This is quite surprising. Nearly all the accounts tell us that virtue and righteousness decreases as we move from the Golden Age to the subsequent ages. Some of them specifically mention that virtue decreases by a quarter in every age. However, there appears to be scant mention of the durations of the ages themselves. If the duration of each Yuga decreased from one Yuga to the next, shouldn’t this important point also have been mentioned in these accounts?
 
In the few accounts where the durations of the Yuga are specified, we find that each age in the Yuga Cycle is of the same duration. For instance, the Zoroastrians believe that the world lasts for 12,000 years, which is divided into four equal ages of 3,000 years each. A Mexican source known as the Codex Rios (also referred to as Codex 3738 and Codex Vaticanus A) states that each age lasts for 4008, 4010, 4801 and 5042 years respectively for a total of 17,861 years. We can see that in this case also the duration of each age is nearly the same. 

Therefore, the durations of the four Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts (i.e. 4800, 3600, 2400, and 1200 years) deviate from the norm. The duration of each Yuga, in this sequence, decreases by 1200 years from the previous one. This is an arithmetic progression which is rarely, if ever, found in natural cycles. This seemingly unnatural sequence raises the question whether the Yuga durations were deliberately altered at some point in the past, in order to give the impression that the duration of each Yuga decreases in tandem with the decrease in virtue from one Yuga to the next. It is important to note that the ratio’s of the durations of the four Yugas in this sequence is 4:3:2:1. This gives the superficial impression that the duration of each Yuga is reducing by a quarter from one to the next. But that is actually not the case. They are decreasing by a fixed number of years i.e. 1200 years. 

Here is the most startling fact: Two of the most famous astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, both believed that the Yuga Cycle is comprised of Yugas of equal duration! In the 11th century, the medieval scholar Al-Beruni had travelled across India for 13 years, questioning and conversing with learned men, reading the Sanskrit texts, observing the religious rites and customs, and had compiled a comprehensive commentary on Indian philosophy, sciences and culture. In Alberuni’s India, Al-Beruni mentions that the Yuga Cycle doctrine was based on the derivations of the Indian astronomer Brahmagupta, who in turn derived his knowledge from the Sanskrit Smriti texts. He makes an interesting statement in this regard:

“Further, Brahmagupta says that “Aryabhatta considers the four yugas as the four equal parts of the caturyuga (Yuga Cycle). Thus he differs from the doctrine of the book Smriti, just mentioned, and he who differs from us is an opponent”.[8]

The fact that Aryabhatta believed the four yugas to be of equal duration is extremely pertinent! Al-Beruni reasserts this in no uncertain terms: “Therefore, according to Aryabhatta, the Kali Yuga has 3000 divya years….each two yugas has 6000 divya years…each three years has 9000 divya years.” Why would Aryabhatta subscribe to such a belief? Did he have access to sources of information that are lost to us now?

Surprisingly, it was not only Aryabhatta, who held this point of view. Another celebrated astronomer of ancient India was Paulisa, who had apparently earned Brahmagupta’s favor by supporting the 4:3:2:1 ratio for the duration of the yugas. According to Al-Beruni, however, “it is possible that Paulisa simply mentions this method as one among others, and that it is not that one in particular which he himself adopted.”[9] This is evident from Paulisa’s belief regarding the caturyuga, as documented by Al-Beruni: “Of the current caturyuga (Yuga Cycle), there have elapsed three yugas i.e. according to him 3,240,000 years i.e. 9000 divya-years. The latter number represents three-fourths of the years of a caturyuga.”[10] This indicates that Paulisa believed that each Yuga was of 3000 divine years’ duration. He uses the same method while presenting his calculations for the duration of a kalpa where “he (Pulisa) has not changed the caturyugas into exact yugas, but simply changed them into fourth parts, and multiplied these fourth parts by the number of years of a single fourth part.”[11]

This clearly indicates that two of the most respected astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, believed in a Yuga Cycle that comprised of 4 Yugas of equal duration of 3,000 divine-years each. However, their opinion was overshadowed by the contradictory view held by Brahmagupta. He railed against Aryabhatta and the other astronomers who held differing opinions, and even abused them. Al-Beruni says about Brahmagupta:

“He is rude enough to compare Aryabhatta to a worm which, eating the wood, by chance describes certain characters in it without understanding them and without intending to draw them. “He, however, who knows these things thoroughly, stands opposed to Aryabhatta, Srishena, and Vishnucandra like the lion against gazelles. They are not capable of letting him see their faces. ” In such offensive terms he attacks Aryabhatta and maltreats him.”[12]

We can now understand why Brahmagupta’s opinion finally prevailed over that of the other astronomers of his time, and it certainly did not have anything to do with the inherent soundness of his logic, or the authenticity of his sources.

It is time for us to stop standing in opposition to Aryabhatta, Paulisa, Srishena, Vishnucandra and others like the “lion against gazelles”, and instead take cognizance of the very real possibility that the Yugas in the Yuga Cycle are of equal duration, and the 4:3:2:1 sequence of the Yugas may have been a mathematical manipulation that crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine sometime prior to 500 CE.  It is possible that this manipulation was introduced because people were inclined to believe that the duration of a Yuga should decrease in tandem with the decrease in virtue and human longetivity from one Yuga to the next. A neat formula was devised in which the total duration of the Yugas added up to 12,000 years. However, there was one problem. If the Kali Yuga is of 1,200 years duration, then it should have been completed many times over, since its proposed beginning in 3102 BC. In order to circumvent this potentially embarrassing situation, another complexity was introduced. Each “year” of the Yuga Cycle became a “divine year” comprised of 360 human years. The Yuga Cycle became inflated to 4,320,000 years (12,000*360) and the Kali Yuga became equal to 432,000 years (1,200*360). Humanity became consigned to an interminable duration of darkness. 

The original Yuga Cycle doctrine appears to have been very simple: A Yuga Cycle duration of 12,000 years, with each Yuga lasting for 3,000 years. This cycle is encoded in the “Saptarsi Calendar” which has been used in India for thousands of years. It was used extensively during the Maurya period in the 4th century BC, and is still in use in some parts of India.  The term “Saptarsi” refers to the “Seven Rishis” or the “Seven Sages” representing the seven stars of the Great Bear constellation (Ursa Major). They are regarded as the enlightened rishis who appear at the beginning of every Yuga to spread the laws of civilization. The Saptarsi Calendar used in India had a cycle of 2,700 years; it is said that the Great Bear constellation stays for 100 years in each of the 27 “Nakshatras” (lunar asterisms) which adds up to a cycle of 2,700 years.[13] The 2,700 year cycle was also referred to as a “Saptarsi Era” or a “Saptarsi Yuga”.

Fig 1: The Great Bear constellation (Ursa Major) is clearly visible in the northern sky throughout the year. The seven prominent stars represent the Seven Sages (Saptarshi). The Great Bear constellation figures prominently in the mythology of many cultures.


If the 2,700 year cycle of the Saptarsi Calendar represents the actual duration of a Yuga, then the remaining 300 years out of the total Yuga duration of 3,000 years (representing 1/10th of the Yuga duration), automatically represents the “transitional period”, before the qualities of the subsequent Yuga are fully manifested. In accordance with the current convention, this intervening period can be broken up into two separate periods of 150 years each, one occurring at the beginning of the Yuga, known as Sandhya (i.e. dawn), and the other at its termination, known as Sandhyansa (i.e. twilight). The total duration of the Yuga Cycle, excluding the transitional periods, is equal to (2700*4) i.e. 10,800 years, which is same as the duration of the “Great Year of Heraclitus” in the Hellenic tradition!

It is agreed by historians that the Saptarsi Calendar that was in use during the Maurya period in the 4th century BC, started in 6676 BC. In the book, “Traditions of the Seven Rsis”, Dr.J.E. Mitchiner confirms this: “We may conclude that the older and original version of the Era of the Seven Rsis commenced with the Seven Rsis in Krttika in 6676 BC…This version was in use in northern India from at least the 4th century BC, as witnessed by the statements of Greek and Roman writers; it was also the version used by Vrddha Garga, at around the start of the Christian era.”[14]
 
In fact, the recorded choronology of Indian kings goes back further than 6676 BC as documented by the Greek and Roman historians Pliny and Arrian. Pliny states that, “From Father Liber [Roman Bacchus or Greek Dionysus] to Alexander the Great (d. 323 BC), Indians reckon 154 kings, and they reckon (the time as) 6451 years and 3 months.”[15] Arrian puts 153 kings and 6462 years between Dionysus and Sandrokottos (Chandragupta Maurya), to whose court a Greek embassy was sent in 314 BC.[16] Both indications add up to a date of roughly c.6776 BC, which is a 100 years prior to the beginning of the Saptarsi Calendar in 6676 BC. 

It is obvious from the accounts of Pliny and Arrian that they must have identified a specific king in the Indian kings list, who corresponded to the Greek Dionysus or Roman Bacchus, and whose reign had ended at around c.6776 BC. Who could that have been? According to the renowned scholar and Orientalist Sir William Jones, Dionysus or Bacchus was none other than the Indian monarch Rama. In his essay “On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India” (1784), Sir William Jones “deems Rama to be the same as the Grecian Dionysos, who is said to have conquered India with an army of satyrs, commanded by Pan; and Rama was also a mighty conqueror, and had an army of large monkeys or satyrs, commanded by Maruty (Hanuman), son of Pavan. Rama is also found, in other points, to resemble the Indian Bacchus.”[17] Sir William Jones also points out that, “Meros is said by the Greeks to have been a mountain of India, on which their Dionysus was born, and that Meru is also a mountain near the city of Naishada, or Nysa, called by the Grecian geographers Dionysopolis, and universally celebrated in the Sanskrit poems.”[18]

Both Pliny and Arrian were aware of these associations. Pliny had placed the Dionysian satyrs “in the tropical mountains of India”, while “we learn from Arrian (Hist.Ind. p 318, 321) that the worship of Bacchus, or Dionysus, was common in India and that his votaries observed a number of rites similar to those of Greece…On this account, when Alexander entered India, the natives considered the Greeks as belonging to the same family with themselves; and when the people of Nysa sent the principal person of their city to solicit their freedom of the Grecian conqueror, they conjured him by the well-known name of Dionysus, as the most effectual means of obtaining their purpose. ‘O King, the Nyssaeans entreat thee to allow them to enjoy their liberties and their laws, out of respect to Dionysus .’”[19]

The identification of Dionysus with Rama provides us with fresh perspectives. According to the Indian tradition, Rama had lived towards the end of the Treta Yuga (Silver Age), and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) had started soon after his demise. This implies that the 6676 BC date for the beginning of the Saptarsi Calendar, which is a 100 years after Dionysus i.e. Rama, indicates the beginning of the Dwapara Yuga in the descending cycle.

A later Saptarsi Calendar, still in use in India, is generally believed to have started in 3076 BC. But, as Dr. Subhash Kak points out, “the new count that goes back to 3076 BC was started later to make it as close to the start of the Kali era as possible”[20]. This modification can be easily identified, since in 3076 BC, the Great Bear were in the “Magha” nakshatra (lunar asterism) as mentioned by Varahamihira in Brihat-Samhita (Brs. 13-3). But Subhash Kak points out that, “By the time of the Greeks, the naksatras were listed starting with Asvin (Surya Siddhanta 8.9). As Magha is the tenth naksatra in a count beginning with Asvin, one needs to add 900 years to find the epoch for the beginning of the cycle. This takes one to 3976 BC. One more complete Saptarsi Cycle of 2,700 years before that brings us to 6676 BC.”[21]

There is fairly convincing evidence that the original Saptarsi Era for the Kali Yuga commenced from 3676 BC.In the book Traditions of the Seven Rsis, Dr.Mitchiner points out that the Saptarsi Calendar for the Kali Yuga (the Kashmir Laukika Abda) had started when the Saptarsis were in Rohini. Since the Saptarsis were in Rohini in 3676 BC, it implies that the Kali Yuga cycle must have commenced in 3676 BC.Now this is where it gets more interesting. A Saptarsi Era began in 6676 BC, and another cycle started exactly 3000 years later in 3676 BC. But the Saptarsi Cycle is of 2700 years duration. Why did the Saptarsi Era for the Kali Yuga start 3000 years after the previous cycle? This means a 300 year "transitional period" must have been added to the end of the previous cycle! It clearly proves the hypothesis that the 2700 year Saptarsi Cycle, along with a 300 year "transitional period" was the original calendrical basis of the Yuga Cycle. We can also conclude from this analysis that the Saptarsi Calendar starting in 6676 BC was counting time from the Dwapara Yuga in the descending cycle, since the Dwapara Yuga immediately precedes the Kali Yuga. 

 Fig 2: The List of the 27 Nakshatras. The Great Bear was in Magha in 3076 BC and in Ashvini in 3976 BC / 6676 BC

We also know that the Saptarsi Calendar used during the Mauryan period was used for tracking the genealogical records of the Mahabharata war kings. Since the Mahabharata describes events that transpired in the Dwapara Yuga, there cannot be any doubt that the Saptarsi Cycle beginning 6676 BC marks the beginning of the descending Dwapara Yuga. If we use this date as the anchor point, and the Saptarsi Calendar as the basis for the Yuga Cycle durations (i.e. Yuga duration of 2,700 years, with transitional periods of 300 years), then the entire timeline of the Yuga Cycle gets unraveled:

Fig 3: The Yuga Cycle timeline based on the Saptarshi Calendar
This Yuga Cycle timeline takes the beginning of the Golden Age to 12676 BC, more than 14,500 years before present, when the Great Bear was in the “Shravana” nakshatra (the Great Bear will advance by 3 nakshtras in every Yuga because of the 300 year transitional period). This agrees very well with the Indian tradition, since the Mahabharata mentions that in the ancient tradition the Shravana nakshatra was given the first place in the Nakshatra cycle. 

The timeline also indicates that the ascending Kali Yuga, which is the current epoch in which we are living, will end in 2025 CE. The full manifestation of the next Yuga – the ascending Dwapara – will take place in 2325 CE, after a transitional period of 300 years. The ascending Dwapara Yuga will then be followed by two more Yugas: the ascending Treta Yuga and the ascending Satya Yuga, which will complete the 12,000 year ascending cycle. 

The Sanskrit text Brahma-vaivarta Purana describes a dialogue between Lord Krishna and the Goddess Ganges. Here, Krishna says that after 5,000 years of Kali Yuga there will be a dawn of a new Golden Age which will last for 10,000 years (Text 50, 59). This can be immediately understood in the context of the Yuga Cycle timeline described here. We are now ending the Kali Yuga, nearly 5,700 years since its beginning in 3676 BC. And the end of the Kali Yuga will be followed by three more Yugas spanning 9,000 years, before the ascending cycle ends.

Part 2: The archaeological and historical evidence

According to the Yuga Cycle doctrine, the transitional periods between Yugas are always associated with a worldwide collapse of civilizations and severe environmental catastrophes, which wipe out virtually every trace of any human civilization. The new civilization that emerges in the new Yuga is guided by a few survivors of the cataclysm, who carry with them the technical and spiritual knowledge of the previous epoch. Many ancient sources tell us of the enigmatic group of “Seven Sages” (“Saptarsi”) who are said to appear at the beginning of every Yuga and promulgate the arts of civilization. We find them in myths from across the world – in Sumeria, India, Polynesia, South America and North America. They possessed infinite wisdom and power, could travel over land and water, and took on various forms at will. Were they the survivors of the previous Yuga or visitors from outer space? Opinions differ on this point, but surely neither option can be discarded without proper scrutiny. In any case, the main point is that the transitional periods between Yugas must necessarily correlate with the severe cataclysmic events that regularly impact our planet, as reflected in the archeological records. As we shall see, the Yuga Cycle timeline proposed here correlates with these catastrophic events with a stunning accuracy. In addition, the transitional periods can also be correlated with dates recorded in various ancient calendars and traditions. 

The first transitional period in the 12,000 year descending Yuga Cycle is the 300 year period at the end of the Golden Age from 9976 BC – 9676 BC. This is the time when the last Ice Age came to a sudden end; the climate became very warm quite abruptly, and several large mammalian species such as the woolly mammoth became extinct. A number of scientific studies show that a devastating global flood occurred at around 9600 BC.[22] This is in accordance with many ancient traditions and legends. In the Timaeus, Plato talks of the mythical island of Atlantis, which was swallowed up by the sea in a “single day and night of misfortune” in c.9600 BC. This event has also been recorded in the flood myths of many ancient cultures, which almost uniformly talk of enormous walls of water that submerged the entire land to the highest mountain tops, accompanied by heavy rain, fireballs from the sky, intense cold and long periods of darkness. In the Indian tradition, this flood took place at the end of the Satya Yuga (Golden Age). The survivor of this great deluge was Manu, the progenitor of mankind, who is placed at the head of the genealogy of Indian kings.

What could have led to this sudden worldwide deluge? Archaeologist Bruce Masse of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico had examined a sample of 175 flood myths from different cultures around the world and concluded that the environmental aspects described in these events, which is also consistent with the archaeological and geophysical data, could have only been precipitated by a destructive, deep-water, oceanic comet impact.[23] In 2008, a team of Danish geologists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Copenhagen studied the ice core data from Greenland, and concluded that the ice age ended exactly in 9703 BC.  Researcher Jorgen Peder Steffensen said that, “in the transition from the ice age to our current warm, interglacial period the climate shift is so sudden that it is as if a button was pressed”[24]. More recently, in 2012, an international team of scientists concluded that the earth was bombarded by a meteorite storm nearly 12,000 years ago, which effectively ended the ice age, and led to the end of a prehistoric civilization and the extinction of many animal species.[25] It is interesting to note that the 9703 BC date for the sudden climate shift falls within the 300 year transitional period at the end of the Golden Age from 9976 BC – 9676 BC, and as such, it provides the first important validation of the Yuga Cycle timeline identified here.

The 300 year transitional period between the Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) from 6976 BC – 6676 BC also coincides with a significant environmental event - the Black Sea Catastrophe which has recently been dated to 6700 BC. The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen with melted glacial waters, breached a natural dam, and cut through the narrow Bosphorous Strait, catastrophically flooding the Black Sea. This raised the water levels of the Black Sea by several hundred feet, flooded more than 60,000 square miles of land, and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline (by around 30%).[26] This event fundamentally changed the course of civilization in Southeastern Europe and western Anatolia. Geologists Bill Ryan and Walter Pitman of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York, who had first proposed the Black Sea Catastrophe hypothesis, have gone to the extent of comparing it to Noah’s Flood

Similar major flooding events were taking place in many parts of the world, as massive glacial lakes, swelled by the waters of the melting ice, breached their ice barriers, and rushed into the surrounding areas. In the book Underworld, Graham Hancock has described some of the terrible events that ravaged the planet during that time. Sometime between 6900 BC – 6200 BC the Laurentide ice-sheet disintegrated in the Hudson Bay and an enormous quantity of glacial waters from the inland Lake Agassiz/Ojibway discharged into the Labrador Sea. This was possibly the “single largest flood of the Quarternary Period”, which may have single-handedly raised global sea-level by half a metre.[27] The period between 7000 BC – 6000 BC was also characterized by the occurrences of gigantic earthquakes in Europe. In northern Sweden, some of these earthquakes caused “waves on the ground”, 10 metres high, referred to as “rock tsunamis”. It is possible that the global chain of cataclysmic events during this transitional period may have been triggered by a single underlying cause, which we are yet to find out.

Fig 4: The Black Sea catastrophe, before and after. The water from the Mediterranean (Aegean) Sea, cut through a narrow Gorge (now known as the Bosphorous Strait), and plunged into the Black Sea (whose water level was 80 m below sea level) creating a gigantic waterfall. Every day for two years, 42 cubic km of sea water cut through the narrow channel and plunged into the lake — more than 200 times the flow over Niagara Falls. Source: NASA

The transitional period between the Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga, from 3976 BC – 3676 BC was again marked by a series of environmental cataclysms, whose exact nature remains a mystery. It is referred to in geology as the 5.9 kiloyear event, and it is considered as one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene period. It occurred around 3900 BC, ending the Neolithic Subpluvial and initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert. At the same time, between 4000 BC – 3500 BC, the coastal plains of Sumer experienced severe flooding, which “was the local effect of a worldwide episode of rapid, relatively short-term flooding known as the Flandrian transgression – which had a significant impact not only along the shores of the Gulf but in many other parts of Asia as well.”[28] This catastrophic flooding event led to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotemia, and triggered a worldwide migration to river valleys. Soon afterwards,we find the beginnings of the first settlements on the banks of the Nile, Tigris and the Indus, sometime around c.3500 BC.

This transitional period between the yugas is recorded in many ancient calendars, as we find a clustering of important dates around this epoch. For a very long time, there was a prevalent belief in the western world that the world was created in 4004 BC. This date comes to us from the genealogies of the Old Testament. This date is just 28 years prior to the end of the Dwapara and the beginning of the transitional period. The year of world creation in the Jewish religious calendar is 3761 BC, which is in the middle of the transitional period. The Saptarshi Era for the Kali Yuga (the Kashmir Laukika Abda) started in 3676 BC, at the end of the transitional period of 300 years.

The famous Mahabharata War of the Indian subcontinent, which took place 35 years prior to the beginning of the Kali Yuga, can now be dated to either 3711 BC (i.e. 35 years prior to 3676 BC) or 4011 BC (i.e. 35 years prior to 3976 BC, the beginning of the transitional period). The Mahabharata mentions that the Dwapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga started as soon as Krishna left this world; and then the seas swelled up and submerged the island-city of Dwarka, which was located off the coast of western India. In 2002, the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIO), India, discovered two cities submerged in the Gulf of Cambay, at a depth of 120 feet. These mysterious submerged cities were laid out in a grid, had towering walls, massive geometrical buildings and huge engineering works such as dams, and they stood entirely above water around 7,000 years ago. Nearly 2,000 man-made artifacts were recovered from the sites, some of which have been carbon dated to 6500 BC – 7500 BC, indicating their existence in the Dwapara Yuga.

Fig 5: A long underwater wall, amidst the ruins of the fabled city of Dwarka, off the coast of western India, at a depth of 170 feet below the Arabian Sea. Source: The Lost City of Dvaraka - By S.R. Rao
Fig 6: A prismatic stone anchor, in the underwater ruins of Dwarka. Source: The Lost City of Dvaraka - By S.R. Rao
As per the ancient traditions, the descending Kali Yuga, which was referred to by Hesiod as the “Age of Heroes”, came to an end with the battle fought on the plains of Troy. The Yuga Cycle timeline indicates that the 300 year intervening period between the descending and ascending Kali Yuga extended from 976 BC – 676 BC; and very interestingly, this overlaps with the 300 year period from 1100 BC to 800 BC which is referred to by historians as the Greek Dark Ages! The archaeological evidence shows that tremendous destruction visited the Greek isles at this time. The great Mycenaean cities and palaces collapsed. Villages and towns were burnt, destroyed and abandoned. The population of the cities reduced drastically, there was widespread famine and people lived in isolated, small settlements. Such was the magnitude of the cataclysms that ancient Greeks entirely forgot the art of writing which they had to re-learn from the Phoenicians in the 8th century! The ancient trade networks were disrupted and came to a grinding halt. 

However, this was not just a collapse of the ancient Greek civilization; there was a worldwide collapse of civilizations during this period. The Hittites suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Egypt too lost control over its kingdom. The period from 1070 BC – 664 BC is known as the “Third Intermediate Period” of Egypt, during which time Egypt was run over and ruled by foreign rulers, and there was political and social disintegration and chaos. Egypt was increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding of the Nile, and famine. In India, the Indus Valley civilization finally ended at around 1000 BC. Catastrophe also struck the ancient Olmec civilization of Mesoamerica at this time. The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was abandoned at around 900 BC. A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred in c.950 BC, and scholars believe that drastic environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.

Once again we don’t know what may have triggered this calamitous turn of events across the world. Historians speculate about a combination of catastrophic climatic events. Egyptian accounts tell us that, “something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC.”[29] One proposed cause is the Hekla 3 eruption of the Hekla volcano in Iceland, but the dating of that event remains in dispute. However, since the descending and ascending Kali Yuga are not so different in terms of their qualitative aspects, the level of devastation during this transitional period was perhaps not as severe as the previous one, as a result of which some aspects of civilization survived.

When the ascending Kali Yuga began in 676 BC, much of the knowledge, traditions and skills from the descending Kali Yuga were lost. In Greece, the construction of monumental architecture ceased. The cavalry was replaced by foot soldiers. Pottery styles were simplified.  In India, the use of Sanskrit as the means of communication was replaced by the language of the common masses – Pali and Prakrit. Knowledge of the ancient scriptures, sciences and arts had been all but forgotten. Possibly in response to this grave social crisis, a number of philosophers and prophets appeared at this time, trying to re-discover the lost wisdom, and spread it amongst the ignorant masses. Among them were Buddha (623 BC), Pythagoras (570 BC), Zoroaster (600 BC), and Mahavir Jain (599 BC). 

People were so perturbed by the calamities of the previous centuries that they began a vigorous attempt to finally document the ancient scriptures, which were till then being transmitted in a purely oral fashion. It was in this grave social and cultural milieu that the Mayans re-calculated and re-calibrated their calendric system at Izapa sometime after 400 BC. And a few centuries later Aryabhatta and others attempted to fix the beginnings of the Kali Yuga. Such an effort would have been quite un-necessary if the cataclysms of the previous centuries had not disrupted the flow of the rich oral traditions. However, much of the knowledge from the previous epoch was irretrievably lost. For instance, the original Vedas were comprised of 1,180 sakhas (i.e. branches), of which only 7 or 8 sakhas (less than 1 %) are remembered now.  As a result, it is only natural to expect that even within the texts that were finally documented, various errors and omissions had crept in. The mistakes in the Yuga Cycle doctrine were some of them. 

The Yuga Cycle timelines proposed here accurately mirrors the worldwide environmental catastrophes that accompanies the transitional periods between Yugas. The four key transitional periods, since the end of the Golden Age, have been summarized here:

Fig 7: The Transitional Periods between Yugas

This recurrent pattern of devastation is clearly discernible in the archaeological records. Every 2,700 years our planet is impacted by a series of cataclysmic events for a period of a few hundred years, which brings about a total or near total collapse of civilizations across the world. In all the cases, however, we find that civilization restarts immediately after the period of destruction. 

In recent years, many independent historians and researchers have realized that the concept of a Yuga Cycle is a far better descriptor of ancient history, than the model of linear progress favored by mainstream historians. Egyptologist John Anthony West, whose seminal work on the dating of the Sphinx has won him worldwide acclaim, mentions in his article “Consider the Kali Yuga” that:

“Since Egypt's Old Kingdom, up until very recently…civilization has been going down, not up; simple as that. We can follow that degenerative process physically in Egypt; it is written into the stones and it is unmistakable. The same tale is told in the mythologies and legends of virtually all other societies and civilizations the world over...Progress does not go in a straight line from primitive ancestors to smart old us with our bobblehead dolls and weapons of mass destruction; our traffic jams and our polluted seas, skies and lands. There is another, and far more realistic, way to view history. Plato talked about a cycle of Ages: Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron (or Dark) Age; a cycle, a wave form - not a straight line. A similar understanding is reflected by virtually all other ancient accounts. The best known, and by far the most elaborately developed of these systems, is the Hindu, with its Yuga Cycle, which corresponds to the Platonic idea of four definable Ages.”[30]

It is evident that the original Yuga Cycle was based on the Saptarsi Calendar. It was of 12,000 years duration, comprised of four Yugas of equal duration of 2,700 years each, separated by transitional periods of 300 years. The complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years was comprised of an ascending and descending Yuga cycle, which followed each other for eternity like the cycles of day and night. For the past 2,700 years we have been evolving through the ascending Kali Yuga, and this Yuga is coming to an end in 2025. The end of the Yuga will inevitably be followed by cataclysmic earth changes and civilization collapses, as is characteristic of the transitional periods. The Dwapara Yuga is fundamentally different from the Kali in its spiritual and material dimensions, as can be gleaned from the ancient texts. Hence, we may anticipate far-reaching changes in our environment, and possibly in our cosmic neighborhood, as we transition to this period of enhanced consciousness. The current upswing in tectonic activities and the increased incidence of extreme weather phenomena may be indicative of the fact that we are slowly entering into a period of volatile earth changes. We need to be aware of these greater cycles of time that govern human civilization, and the changes that are looming in the horizon.

References:



[1] The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva, Tirtha-yatra Parva, SECTION CXLVIII, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr.[1883-1896], from sacredtexts.com
[2] Sûrya-Siddhânta: a text-book of Hindu astronomy, Ebenezer Burgess, Phanindralal Gangooly, Chapter 1, p 41
[3] Timaeus 39d
[4] De die natali 18.11
[5] Lokamanya Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Messrs. TILAK BROS, Gaikwar Wada, Poona City,1903
[6] Sri Yukteswar, The Holy Science, 1894, p xi
[7] Jenny Strauss Clay, Hesiod’s Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p 83
[8] Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII
[9] Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 375
[10] Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 376
[11] Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 375
[12] Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 376
[13] Subhash Kak, On the Chronological Framework for Indian Culture, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 2000, p 1-24.
[14] J.E. Mitchiner, Traditions of the Seven Rishis, Motilal B, Delhi 1982, p. 163.
[15] Pliny, Naturalis Historia, 6.59-60
[16] Arrian,Indica, 9.9
[17] Encyclopaedia Londinensis, Vol 21, 1826, p 677
[18] Sir William Jones, On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India, 1784
[19] The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, Volume 3, 1830, p 174
[20] Subhash Kak, On the Chronological Framework for Indian Culture, Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 2000, pp. 1-24.
[21] Subhash Kak, On the Chronological Framework for Indian Culture, Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 2000, pp. 1-24.
[22] Graham Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization, Three Rivers Press, p 74
[23] Luigi Piccardi and Bruce Masse, Myth and Geology, Geological Society of London Special Publication 273, 2007
[24] Danish Arctic research dates Ice Age, Politiken.dk, 11 Dec 2008,   http://politiken.dk/newsinenglish/article611464.ece
[25] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2158054/Scientists-discover-evidence-meteorite-storm-hit-Earth-13-000-years-ago-killed-prehistoric-civilisation.html, Daily Mail,
[26] Geologists Link Black Sea Deluge To Farming's Rise, New York Times, December 17, 1996 http://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/17/science/geologists-link-black-sea-deluge-to-farming-s-rise.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
[27] Graham Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization, Three Rivers Press, p 82-83
[28] Graham Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization, Three Rivers Press, p 31
[29] Frank J. Yurco, "End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause" in Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente, ed: Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.456-458, taken from wikipedia
[30] John Anthony West, Consider the Kali Yuga, March 2008, http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/WestJA2.php?p=1             

106 comments:

  1. I saw this fantastic article at the Graham Hancock website; many thanks for making it available for it adds some "sense" to this otherwise non-sensical world.

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    Replies
    1. Thanks. I'm glad that you liked the article and found it useful. The Yuga Cycle is the proper way to interpret our history. It explains the formidable technological and spiritual sophistication of the ancient cultures, as well as the frequent cataclysms that have impacted our planet.

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  2. Hello

    There is intense discussion on a related topic here

    http://forums.bharat-rakshak.com/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=6381

    Its a take on migration Out Of India rather than Invasion from Aryans from outside. The discussion has ranged from texts to animals present in sub continent to time frames.
    It would be nice if you could participate and put forth your arguments there which would be helpful to the discussion.

    many thanks

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    Replies
    1. Thanks for sharing the link and inviting me to the discussion. I will definitely go through the diverse information that has been shared on this subject in the discussion board, and will express my thoughts on this topic as well. Thanks.

      Delete
  3. Hi Bibhu, This was a very well researched and well written article, Thanks!
    I have for long been fascinated by ancient history and its really interesting how scriptures/religious texts can be looked at as historical documents too. Its an irony that even though we look at history as a great teacher, we discount the fact that our ancestors would have tried to record history to teach us!
    This has reinvigorated my interest and I would certainly look at reading more. Would watch your space too! Jayesh

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    1. Thanks Jayesh. It is true that the ancient texts record historical and cosmological information, which can be interpreted with the aid of some of the latest discoveries in science.
      However, we must also remember that large chunks of information are missing, or have been fabricated, primarily due to the colossal loss of knowledge during the Yuga transitions.
      If we keep an open mind, and consider the information present in various ancient texts across religions and cultures, we will be in a better position to reconstruct our past.

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  4. Yeah, right.
    It only seems like 435,000 years.
    That's the ticket.

    Srila Vyasdadeva is not amused.

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    1. Not sure from where you are getting the 435,000 years...are you referring to the inflated value of 432,000 years for the Kali Yuga mentioned in some of the Puranas? Perhaps, you would do well to read the article where it has been pointed out that the actual value of the Yuga Cycle is 12,000 years which is mentioned both in the Laws of Manu and the Mahabharata, the latter being written by Veda Vyasa. So, kindly do not pretend to talk on behalf of Veda Vyasa, without being aware of the facts.

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    2. Can you gimme references to thr verses in Mahabharara and Laws of Manu please

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    3. I have provided the reference in one of my comments below (March 02, 2013). I am copy-pasting it here as well.

      There are a couple of Sanskrit texts - The Manu Smriti (Chapter 1) and the Mahabharata (Santi Parva), which specify that the yuga duration is of 12,000 years (and not divine years). The Mahabharta specifically mentions that it is 12,000 human years. Here are the relevant sections:

      The Laws of Manu, Translated by G. Buhler
      CHAPTER I

      "69. They declare that the Krita age four thousand years; the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.

      70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one.

      71. These twelve thousand which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four ages, are called one age of the gods."

      The Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Book 12: Santi Parva
      SECTION CCXXXI

      "Computing by the days and nights of human beings about which I have told thee, I shall speak of the day and night of Brahman and his years also. I shall, in their order, tell thee the number of years, that are for different purposes computed differently in respect of the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and the Kali yugas. Four thousand years is the duration of the first or Krita age. The morning of that epoch consists of four hundred years and its evening is of four hundred years. As regards the other yugas, the duration of each gradually decreases by a quarter in respect of both the substantive period with the conjoining portion and the conjoining portion itself. The duration of the Dwapara also is two thousand years, and its morning extends for two hundred years and its evening also for two hundred. The duration of the Kali yuga is one thousand years, and its morning extends for one hundred years, and its evening for one

      The learned say that these twelve thousand years constitute what is called a yuga. A thousand such yugas compose a single day of Brahman."

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  5. Superb Research. Whatever may be the outcome in 2025, the scientific work done by Mr. Mishra is commendable. May God bless you. Keep on going my son.

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    1. Dear Mr. Raju, thank you for your good wishes and encouragement. Regarding 2025, I do not think anything specific will happen on that date.It is more like a time-marker, indicating the beginning of the transitional period. If anything, the process of change should accelerate after that point.

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  6. Hello Bhibu ji,

    Thanks for delivering an excellent article. I hope you don't mind, but I have cross-posted it on a forum - BRF. We are exploring the Dating of our Scriptures there and for the benefit for all those, who are participating there, I posted it there with all due credit. There are members there, who are also deep into dating Mahabharata, etc.

    You are of course most welcome to visit us and to participate should time allow you.

    http://forums.bharat-rakshak.com/viewtopic.php?p=1359037#p1359037

    Kind Regards

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello, thank you for sharing the article on your discussion forum. I hope the members will find it interesting and useful. I could not register for your discussion forum (since gmail is not accepted). However, I'll try to drop in from time to time to view the comments and contributions of the participants.

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  7. Superb article Bibhu Dev ji, Congratulations for the same.
    I found article being refered at bharat rakshak fourm.

    By the way you also scared me to hell when you said that there happens a lot of calamities and destruction at civilizational level every 2700 years.
    From your article's image, 2700 - 676 BC comes at 2024 A.D

    Regards,
    Virendra

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    Replies
    1. Thanks Virendra. The archaeological evidence clearly shows a lot of destruction every 2700 years, but I do not think that it is something to be scared of. Even climate scientists are telling us that the weather patterns are going to get a lot worse in the coming decades, and we can see that seismic activities have also increased. Besides, if we are indeed going to transition to a higher age of consciousness then it is certainly a cause for joy and not fear.
      Regarding the 2025 date: In the Gregorian system there is no year 0 i.e. we go straight from 1 BC to 1 AD. Hence the ending of the Kali Yuga comes to 2025 (and not 2024).

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  8. Bibhu Dev ji.

    I understand your point now.
    Requesting your permission to reference your article/post at a discussion forum (of course duly marking your name and url) -
    http://defenceforumindia.com

    Thank you

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    Replies
    1. Hello Virendra,

      Please feel free to share the article with your friends on the discussion forum.

      Best, Bibhu

      Delete
    2. Bibhu Ji,

      You've used Aryabhatta's date as around 500 C.E.
      I've found various dates for him, depending upon how the scholar interprets his verses. Here's one such, would like to know your thoughts.
      ------------------------------
      In his book Aryabhatteeyam, Aryabhatta clearly provides his birth data. In the 10th stanza, he says that when 60 x 6 = 360 years elapsed in this Kali Yuga, he was 23 years old. The stanza of the sloka starts with “Shastyabdanam Shadbhiryada vyateetastra yascha yuga padah.” “Shastyabdanam Shadbhi” means 60 x 6 = 360. While printing the manuscript, the word “Shadbhi” was altered to “Shasti”, which implies 60 x 60 = 3600 years after Kali Era. As a result of this intentional arbitrary change, Aryabhatta’s birth time was fixed as 476 A.D Since in every genuine manuscript, we find the word “Shadbhi” and not the altered “Shasti”, it is clear that Aryabhatta was 23 years old in 360 Kali Era or 2742 B.C. This implies that Aryabhatta was born in 337 Kali Era or 2765 B.C. and therefore could not have lived around 500 A.D., as manufactured by the Indologists to fit their invented framework.
      Bhaskara I is the earliest known commentator of Aryabhatta’s works. His exact time is not known except that he was in between Aryabhatta (2765 B.C.) and Varahamihira (123 B.C.)." The implications are profound , if indeed this is the case.The zero is by then in widespread use and if he uses Classical Sanskrit then he ante dates Panini.
      http://www.indicstudies.us/History/Misdating.html
      ------------------------------------------

      Regards,
      Virendra

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    3. Hello Virendra,
      Thanks for sharing this interesting information. It is certainly possible that Aryabhatta lived earlier than 500 CE. However, we must also remember that the 3102 BC date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is primarily based on the assumption that Aryabhatta composed Aryabhatiya in 499 CE. If this is not correct we do not have any specific artifact which gives the Kali Yuga date. The Aihole inscription of king Pulakesin gives a relation between the Kali Era and Saka Era, but the beginning of the Saka Era (78 CE)is itself deduced based on the assumption that Kali Yuga started in 3102 BC. Given this situation we can only say that Aryabhatta was born in 337 Kali Era, but cannot state the exact date in the Gregorian calendar.
      Having said this, I have some more questions. The author states that the "authentic manuscripts" mention "shadbhi" and not "shasti". Where is the evidence? We need to see a photocopy of the so-called authentic manuscript. It is difficult to see how such an important piece of information, which has been used for dating the Kali Yuga, could have been translated in error.
      We also have some evidence that Aryabhatta was born in Tarenga, Bihar and had moved to Kusumpura (Pataliputa i.e. Patna) later in life, where he became the head of an institution. Now there is no archaeological evidence of any urban settlement in the gangetic plains before 700 BC. In 2765 BC the focal point of the Indian culture was the Indus Valley civilization. Therefore, unless Kusumpura is a reference to an IVC city (which is unlikely, and unprecedented) the argument does not hold.
      On the whole, I am not convinced by the argument that Aryabhatta was born in 2765 BC. It is not impossible, but the argument is very thin, and not backed up by any valid verifiable evidence.
      Best, Bibhu

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    4. Interesting.
      I am not an acquaintance to the author (Kaushal Vepa) so cannot offer more insight. I could only remind myself of a good book I read "The Plot in Indian Chronology" by Pandit Kota Venkatachalam. First published in 1950s.
      He touches various topics of historic and astronomic nature, including the Saptarishi calculation method.
      May be you'd like to read. The book is available for free download at http://jambudveep.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/the-plot-in-indian-chronology.pdf
      I wonder where you two converge and differ. I'll go back to the book to find out.

      Take Care,
      Virendra

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    5. Hi Virendra,
      Thanks for sharing the link. Looks interesting. I will surely go though it.
      Best, Bibhu

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    6. Sir,
      I want to say something......I agree with what Virendra is saying......but he is miss manipulating....the fact....I think that Aryabhatta is speaking of the beginning of ascending Kaliyuga.....that is the cycle in the upward direction.....as given in the article.....of bibhuje...it started in 676B.C and aryabhatta said it had been 337 Kali era tahe means that he must be around 339 B.C......!please share your thoughts regarding me reply....am eagerly waiting..!!!

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    7. Hi Devanshu, that is an interesting point. But lets us look at Aryabhatta's full statement. He said:

      "When 60 times 60 years (i.e. 3600 years) are gone, when the 3 quarters of the Yuga elapsed, It was my 23rd birth day".

      If 3 quarters of the Yuga is 3600 years (i.e. 60*60), it means that according to Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga was of 4800 years duration. On the other hand if 3 quarters of the Yuga is 360 years (i.e. 60*6) then it implies that Kali Yuga was of 480 years duration.

      None of the these two durations make any sense. According to Alberuni, Aryabhatta believed in yuga duration of 3000 years, while according to the Puranic texts it is of 1200 or 1200*360 years duration. A Kali yuga of 480 or 4800 years duration does not make any sense.

      This is why I believe that Aryabhatta was not talking of the Kali Yuga at all. He never mentions the Kali yuga by name, but instead talks of the current age. This appears to be a calendric system imported into India from outside, where the total yuga duration was of 4800 years, and which started in 3102 BC.

      If you assume that 676 BC was the starting point referred to by Aryabhatta then the Kali Yuga of 480 years would have been completed by 196 BC, and we would be close to completing the Dwapara Yuga by now. Obviously that is not acceptable.

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  9. Humongous information. All belonging to field of my major interest.Had been looking for information and looking forward to more.

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    1. Thank you Rijusmita. I'm glad you found the article informative.

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  10. First of all let me acknowledge the fact that it takes lots of hard work to compose an article of this length, but the topic this article takes on is important one.
    Thanks a lot for putting all that effort and going through all the references.
    I consider myself a physic scholar (though I am not by profession). I have special interests in astronomy. I am always keen to learn about ancient Indian astronomy.
    Articles of this kind are always a treat to read for a person like me.

    I hope I can keep with great Indian tradition being constructively argumentative.

    There are a few instances in the article where there is either a factual error or fact not clearly explained and it appears as if a factual error has been made.
    Take following statement, for example.

    “The 24,000 year duration of the complete Yuga Cycle closely approximates the precessional Year of 25,765 years, which is the time taken by the sun to “precess” i.e. move backwards, through the 12 zodiac constellations.”
    Sun moves (apparent from earth) through 12 Zodiac in just one year and not in 24,000 years. Clearly “precessional Year” is not related with sun’s apparent motion in 12 Zodiac.
    To understand a precessional Year (or precessional cycle), we need to be aware that axis of earth slowly traces out a cone. The time taken by axis to complete this rotation is around 24000 years.
    That mean if I stand exactly on North Pole of earth, and I see a star right on top of our head. That’s where earth’s axis is pointing to.
    After 12000 years, if an observer stands exactly on North Pole or earth. He will not see same star of top of his head. But an observer after 24000 years will see same star on top of his head.

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  11. To add to my previous comment, the error I discussed may not impact the conclusion of article.

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    1. Hi Sandeep,

      Thanks for bringing up the topic of precession. As you mentioned, in a year of 12 months, the sun moves "forward" through the 12 zodiac constellations from Aries to Pisces. However, in case of precession, the equinoctial or solstitial sun appears to move "backwards" i.e. precess through the 12 zodiac constellations.

      The twelve constellations of the zodiac encircle our Solar System like a giant ring. As a result, the sun always rises each morning against the backdrop of a particular constellation. If you consider a fixed date on our calendar, say the vernal equinox date of March 21st, you will find that the sun rises against the backdrop of the constellation of Pisces. One would, therefore, normally expect that every year on March 21st, the sun will rise against the backdrop of Pisces. But that is not the case. In a couple of hundred years from now, the vernal equinox sun will rise against the backdrop of the Aquarius constellation. This is because of precession, because of which the equinox Sun appears to move backwards against the fixed constellations from Pisces to Aries i.e. ‘precess’ along the zodiac. This slow movement occurs at the rate of 1 degree every 71.6 years, such that an entire cycle of 360 degrees is completed in approximately 25,765 years, known as the ‘Precessional Year’.

      The vernal equinox sun takes nearly 2147 years to move through each zodiac constellation of 30 degrees. Thus the ‘Age of Pisces’, during which time the vernal equinox sun is in Pisces, extends from approximately 0 BC – 2147 CE. This will be followed by the ‘Age of Aquarius’ from 2148 CE – 4295 CE.

      Please note that the observed value of precession is 25,765 years and not 24,000 years.
      The value of 24,000 years is only specified in the Surya Siddhanta, which in turn has been correlated to the complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years.

      As you have correctly stated, the effects of precession can also be observed by looking at the Pole Star. Currently the North Celestial Pole of the earth points to the star Polaris, which is considered as the Pole Star, but almost 5,000 years ago the earth’s axis pointed towards the star Thuban in the constellation of Draco, which was the Pole Star during that period. Similarly, in another 6,000 years the North Celestial Pole will point towards the star Alderamin in Cephus, which will then become the Pole Star.

      According to astronomers precession is caused by a slow ‘wobbling’ movement of the earth’s axis as it revolves around the sun. The most commonly offered analogy is that of a ‘spinning top’ which slowly changes its tilt angle as it rotates. There is another theory known as the "binary theory" according to which precession may be caused due to a revolution of the solar system around a binary companion star. I will refer you to the book "Lost Star of Myth and Time" by Walter Cruttenden, where he has provided evidence that shows that the earth does not experience precession with respect to objects within the solar system, which implies that precession may be caused due to a curved motion of the Sun and the entire solar system through space. However, even the binary theory has many problems, which are too detailed to discuss here. As things stand, although precession can be easily observed, its cause is not yet fully understood.

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  12. ...What a very well written article. I have it book marked

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    1. Thank you Stephen.I am glad that you liked it.

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  13. Though I have not read entire article but seems interesting one. It requires WISDOM to write so and also to read so. I will be going through it soon.
    Even by reading it in summary form, I am developing POSITIVE VIBES in me. Thanks for That.
    Appreciated.!!!

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    1. Thanks Bhawin.I appreciate your feedback and compliments. I hope you will enjoy reading the entire article.

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  14. Hi Bibhu,

    I read your article with great interest as I tend to think there is some truth in what is described, even though precise dating and durations are probably too uncertain at that point. But you make a good point in general. I have a comment about the transitions. You said that one can find calamities or cataclysmic events at every transition of the descending phase (last 12000 years or so). Did it ever occur to you that transitions during the ascending phase may turn out to be the "antithesis" of these calamities ?

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    1. Hello,
      At a metaphysical level or the level of consciousness - Yes. In the descending phase every transition was characterized by an enormous loss of knowledge, and reduction in mental capabilities, whereas in the ascending phase it will be just the opposite - every transition will be accompanied by a sudden jump in consciousness, accompanied by higher knowledge and inner wisdom.
      However, I also think that this change in consciousness can be made possible by an influx of new energy, possibly through certain cosmic sources. Therefore our planet will have to "readjust" itself to this new energy, which will probably result in environmental calamities, and civilization collapses.
      However, in the ascending phase, it will be easier for people to deal with these earth changes, since we will be guided by a higher level of wisdom and understanding of what's going on.
      I would like to know your point of view on this.

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    2. Hello Bibhu,
      I honestly have no clue about how this readjustment will look like. What I know is that the world seen as a physical system seems to follow chaotic patterns in the scientific sense (chaos theory). This would mean that we are entering pseudo-stable zones of the phase space (so-called "strange attractors") for a while and eventually, small fluctuations end up completely destroying that pseudo-stability when critical points are reached. The evolution is from then on very turbulent until a new pseudo-stablility zone is reached. It seems that the yuga transitional periods could correspond to the jumping from a "strange attractor" to another, with a lot of turbulence on the way. That is why I find this hindu perspective very fascinating :)

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    3. Thank you! That was very interesting and informative. I was wondering - is it possible for a chaotic system to have an underlying cyclical pattern, like the Yuga cycle? And,in the context of the Yuga cycle, what do you think may be the factors which can create the initial "small fluctuations" that lead to the period of turbulence? Could they be something within the system (e.g. wars, social unrest etc.) or could they be external to the system (sun, moon and other cosmic sources)?

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    4. Hi Bibhu,

      1- Yes, it is possible. Look at the climate patterns on a geological scale: chaotic but (pseudo)-periodic.

      2- any fluctuation of one (or more) of the phase-space dimensions. Because the system is highly non-linear, those can feed feedback loops (output becomes input to some processes). The whole thing here would be to define what this phase-space might be, by introducing some more "spiritual" dimension to it, without neglecting the physical. This dichotomy by the way seems quite illusory ... (cf. quantum duality - wave vs particle).

      3- fluctuations can be internal but also external. We are not a closed system and one must consider the constant input from the sun (radiative energy flux, cosmic rays), planetary system (gravitational fluctuations, radio waves, X-rays, etc) and more distant sources (galactic core, etc). Cosmic rays from the galactic core influences for example our cloud cover and therefore our global climate. Since the Earth belongs to the "galactic suburb" (one spiral arm) we travel quite a lot through the galactic volume and who knows what we go through on the way (regions with dense radiations, etc). And we do so in a periodic fashion.

      So I think there is much more to it than just internal (i.e. earthly) influences and we deal with cycles within cycles. It is very complex and our spiritual, social, etc. states must be very much influenced by all sorts of fluctuations that eventually destabilize the current equilibrium by reaching tipping points in the global phase-space of the Earth, whatever it might be.

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    5. Thanks James for the detailed response. This is really very informative. I think this should be shared with a wider audience. I'm sure not many people are aware of this connection between the Yuga Cycle and chaotic systems. Has anyone written an article on this? If not, perhaps you can?

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    6. Hi Bibhu. As far as I know, no one wrote anything on this because to be honest, it is something I have been musing about after I recently read some articles (including yours). I had known about the Yuga cycles and its supposedly arithmetic progression (4-3-2-1) but had never heard of the transitions being very turbulent. Reading you and other papers made me think about chaos theory and the pseudo-periodicity of many natural phenomena. I am not a chaos expert even though I have an advanced background in fundamental physics. I have evolved since my research years into a more holistic approach to certain aspects of reality and I found a lot of wisdom in Hinduism. Someone will have to dig deeper into a possible link between our spiritual state and its reflection / manifestation in the physical world. I wish I had the time ...

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    7. Hi James, thanks for sharing your thoughts on this blog. Hopefully someone will get inspired by this little discussion and dig deeper. Yes, the Yuga transitions are always turbulent. In Sanskrit the term used is "pralaya", which generally means worldwide destruction. This is the main reason why we find very little evidence of the great civilizations of the previous Yugas.

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  15. Hello Bibhu,

    Thanks’ fort he remarkable explanation concerning equal Yugas from 3000 years! I found you site searching for more info about the eras in the human history. A good point for me are the 3-d volume of the Secret Doctrine by Elena Blavatsky, the “Holly Science“ by Sri Jukteswar Giri and also some other sources concerning the so called “end of world” on 21-23.12.2012…

    You mention in your article:
    “Aryabhatta mentions that the text was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. Since the Aryabhatiya was composed in 499 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga can be traced back to 3102 BC. statement, by itself, does not reveal any information about the astronomical basis on which the date was calculated, or whether the calculation was performed by Aryabhatta himself. It is possible that this date was adopted by Aryabhatta from some other source.”

    I think the date 3102 BC. (or 3101 BC. like in the Secret Doctrine) and the number of 3600 years can be follwed from the Sri Jukteswar “Holly Science” – there is written that 499 CE is the last year from the descending Kali Yuga which according to his (Sri Jukteswar) calculations lasts 1200 Years, and because of error that time the whole period of the previous descending Dwapara Yuga (from 2400 years) was added to this one of the Kali Yuga (so 2400 from Dwapara + 1200 from Kali gives 3600 Years before 499 CE (so 1200 - 499 CE = 701 BC., 701 BC. + 2400 (descending Dwapara) = 3101 BC.)
    That means that the beginning of descending Dwapara Yuga (3101 BC.) was wrong set as the beginning of Kali Yuga…
    Actually it seems both, your calculations and these one of Sri Jukteswar Giri, are correct.

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    1. Hi Ilira,

      Thanks for bringing this up. Here's the complete text of what Aryabhatta said in the Aryabhatiya:

      "When 60 times 60 years (i.e. 3600 years) are gone, when the 3 quarters of the Yuga elapsed, It was my 23rd birth day".

      If 3 quarters of the Yuga is 3600 years, it means that according to Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga was of 4800 years duration.

      So, as per the explanation provided by you, Aryabhatta had added the descending Dwapara (2400 years)+ descending Kali (1200 years) + ascending Kali (1200 years) to arrive at the value of 4800 years for the duration of the Kali Yuga.

      But how could Aryabhatta make the simple mistake of adding Dwapara years to the Kali yuga? He was a famous astronomer, not a layman. Its difficult for me to comprehend how he can make such a basic error.

      Secondly Aryabhatta clearly believed in yugas of equal duration of 3000 years. Why would he adopt the 1:2:3:4 division for the yugas, and on top of that make such a simple mistake of adding Dwapara years to Kali?

      This is why I am inclined to believe that Aryabhatta was not even talking of the Kali Yuga. He never used the term Kali Yuga, instead he said "current Yuga". He is probably talking of a system imported from outside India. And in that system the current era or "world age" lasts for 4800 years of which 3600 years had elapsed in 499 CE. Which means whatever "world age" Aryabhatta was talking about had ended in 1699 CE.

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  16. Good research!!!! I believe in Brahma Kumaries , they have the same concept . This is Sangamyug ( period between kaliyuga and satyug) . Which is 100 years long.....

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    1. Thanks. I am not aware of the system followed by the Brahma Kumaris, but its good to know that their system overlaps with the Yuga Calendar based on the cycle of the Saptarshis.

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    2. When u get chance try to google Brahma Kumaris Life Cycle....you might get some more information similar to your research....

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  17. This is really a massive piece of information and even I have to agree intuitively that 2025 should be the end of Kaliyuga or at least the peak of cleansing process to establish dharma. Western astrology also accepts that Age of Aquarius commences in 2025, which is the age of domination of group consciousness over individual governance or dictatorship. Sri Sathya Sai Baba had also predicted at the world religion summit that there was a possibility of birth of one world religion. A Swedish psychic (can't remember his name) had predicted that a messiah from India will establish one world democracy. And also, Nostradamus and Kalagnana seem to be meeting at a common point - birth of Kalki, and in my opinion it should be around 2023. Either he takes the stage or he takes birth. Kalagnanam might be interest to you as that involves interpretations, and it is said Brahmendra rishi wrote it and said he would come back as Kalki in the future when 100,000 civilian lives will be lost in bloodshed involving communal clashes. He had also predicted Mahatma Gandhi's birth and as the freedom fighter who will lead India against the British. I realize that your blog is purely scientific, and it is amazing, but intuitively when knowledge meets with science and dates also match, what could be more amazing? Thank you for this great info.

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  18. Thanks for the feedback, and for sharing the various predictions and prophecies. I have checked out Kalagnanam and it appears to give very detailed information. My feeling is that many of these prophecies (including the Christian Revelations) draw on some older sources, which are lost to us now. To what extent they are correct remains to be seen, but there seems to be a general agreement that the period around 2025 marks a shift in the yugas.
    Another very interesting prediction was made by Alice Bailey, who was a member of the Theosophical Society.In 1946, she had channeled information from ascended masters that "Christ" or "Maitreya" would return to the physical plane sometime after 2025 AD. Once again, if this was channeled information or not, is debatable. But the date 2025 stands out.
    This indicates that the Saptarshi Calendar, which was used widely in India even till the Maurya times, must have been the basis of the yuga reckoning used by the ancients. The 2700 Saptarshi Cycle is also known as a "saptarshi yuga", and the saptarshis were always regarded as the ones who appear at the beginning of a yuga to promulgate the arts of civilization. However, it is also said that the sapta-rishis do not appear in the Kali Yuga,which is probably why they did not manifest during the transition from the descending to the ascending Kali Yuga in c.900 BCE. Instead the various prophets emerged during this time. Therefore, sometime in the next 100 years or so, we can expect the sapta-rishis to manifest once again to lay the foundations of the new yuga - the ascending Dwapara.

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    1. Next yuga is Satya or Krita Yuga - not Dwapara. :) Man will go back to having nothing, and start afresh as all scientific inventions would have left man with nothing in hand at all.

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    2. In my article I have argued that the Yuga Cycle is comprised of an ascending and descending cycle of 12,000 years each. Such a system was followed by the ancient Jains and the Greeks. This means that the Kali Yuga will be followed by the Dwapara Yuga. It makes sense intuitively as well, since we do not see any abrupt transitions in the cycles of day and night or in the cycles of the seasons. The intensity of light always increases gradually in the smaller cycles. Therefore, this essential pattern should also be present in the Yuga Cycle.

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    3. Thanks. Am, getting back to you after a long time. I have been looking into Nostradamus's predictions as well. Even I followed Sri Yukteswar's Holy Science earlier to believe Dwapara follows after Kali. Age of Truth and conscience is usually Satya as many are suggesting. On the other side, as you say, human evolution is gradual, is also correct, based on the atomic science revolution.

      The reason, am getting back to you is because of the latest revolution of the Aam Aadmi in India and Pakistan. Leave aside judgments, whether a person like Arvind Kejriwal is honest or not, but again as I work purely on intuition and not as qualified as you, I can say it has been a sudden resuscitation of the energy wave, and is tremendously messianic in nature. What I saw about AK when he stood in the midst of all the corrupt politicians, looked like one man clearly glowing with soul insight, who was thoroughly misunderstood and misinterpreted by everybody, and by doing so, people were making a laughing stock of themselves. This was the exact situation, when Lord Krishna incarnated. Duryodhana and the rest mocked him, made fun of him as a gwala who knows nothing about politics. But, at least one good thing convinced me about AK was, the effort and the genuine dignity he wants to restore in the system by instilling faith in the people that spiritualism can work in politics and the first step to it is by embracing Satya. The energy wave was massive when Annaji went on a fast and people thronged from all over,and we can see it was miraculous, as if created by an Avatar. Only an Avatar has the ability to draw such inspiration from crowds and make it peaceful.

      Now, Arsaran Ul Mulk has started Aam Aadmi Party, and Adnan Randhawa has started Aam Aadmi Party of Pakistan in Pakistan. This seems strange, how the wave is catching up, and all of them are As. They clearly accepted they were inspired by Arvind Kejriwal.

      My suspicion is, Arvind Kejriwal is at least a brief time Messiah of Indian Politics whether he succeeds at the center or not, but his intentions seem clear, and his knowledge, and the way he orates is amazingly enlightened. I am not being biased, partial or blind in this, because if a person can always answer your questions with a wholesome clarity, and dispel the ignorance, it means he is messianic in nature. He has practiced Vipassana. i would like to keep on comparing your blog, with Nostradamus's prediction about Chyren Selin who is supposed to come from the islands of five rivers to one - Haryana is close. Apart from what Kalki Purana says, the person is born in shambhala. AK is from Siwani and it contains Siva. So, at least he is here to prove that we are in the last phase of Kaliyug, and much remains for WW3 and cannibalism which are supposed to coincide due to food shortage and price rise. This will be a horrible period to witness while spiritualism will be on the rise as well. Earth cannot be ridden with evil completely ever. While on one hand we may notice extreme evil, gory forces pushing humankind into pits of corruption and carnal tendencies, equally on the other side there will spiritual forces working hard to awaken mankind. Thank you!
      Shyam

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    4. Hi,
      In my opinion the entire ascending cycle of 9,000 years starting with ascending Dwapara, can be regarded as a "Golden Age" since throughout this period mental virtues and human capabilities will go on increasing.
      Regarding Kejriwal, my feeling is that he is honest, committed, perservent, well-informed, and articulate and wants to bring a genuine change in the political process in India. Since I do not watch TV I am probably not as impressed by his oratory skills as you are. But what about the other members of his party? Is it not possible that some people are joining the party out of selfish motives? So, whether the AAP will be an agent of change or not remains to be seen.
      Besides, a political party at the center cannot stop corruption at the state level, end corrupt practices wthin the various arms of the government and public sector, stop corruption in civil society and the private sector, or stop rapes, murders, petty crimes etc. Nor will a political party in India have any effect on people around the globe. The real challenge, really, is to stop the corruption in the minds of the people - to restore peace, tranquility, and mental purity, to instill a desire for truth and wisdom, to encourage humility, compassion, selfless service etc. This is beyond the scope of any political party which will waste most of its energies in fighting its daily battles.
      The real answers will come from the civil society from all over the world, and that change is already happenning. I do not see any specific person as the Kalki Avatar, since, as I have mentioned in some of my earlier comments, I believe that Kalki Avatar will not be a mortal but will come in the form of a comet. Our planet may have a date with a cometary swarm in the near future. Of course, there may be a lot of enlightened and inspired people who will make valuable contributions in the process of awakening before the coming of the Avatar. But none should be mistaken for the Kalki Avatar, whose power and glory is beyond our wildest imagination.

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  19. This book might interest you - http://www.amazon.com/Babaji-Lightning-Standing-Still-Softcover/dp/B006VP819K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1361719475&sr=8-1&keywords=babaji+gurunath

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  20. Incorrect Calculation ...

    ::Measurement of Time::
    http://www.facebook.com/notes/sree-kumar/measurement-of-time/481159745264046

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    1. I have written an entire article showing that the original Yuga Cycle was of 12,000 years duration which was composed of yugas of 2700 years duration separated by transitional periods of 300 years, and you have sent me a link which shows the same old calculations present in many of the Puranas where the yugas were inflated by a factor of 360 and the yuga durations had a 1:2:3:4 ratio.

      There is absolutely no sense in sending me a link whose contents I have just refuted in the article. Either you have not read the article or you did not pay attention. Even if you disagreed with my hypothesis, I would expect a more reasonable and well-argued comment rather than a terse statement like "incorrect calculation".

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    2. Dear Sirji...

      I would agree to the figure 12,000 years if and only if its considered as 12,000 Daivic year not human years...

      eg: 12,000 Daivic years = 4,320,000 human years.
      As explained in the link
      360 ahoraatras of Devas makes one year of Devas = Davic year..

      Hence i marked your calculation incorrect.

      Secondly: Have you contemplated on the number 360.

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    3. There are a couple of Sanskrit texts - The Manu Smriti (Chapter 1) and the Mahabharata (Santi Parva), which specify that the yuga duration is of 12,000 years (and not divine years). The Mahabharta specifically mentions that it is 12,000 human years. Here are the relevant sections:

      The Laws of Manu, Translated by G. Buhler
      CHAPTER I

      "69. They declare that the Krita age four thousand years; the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.

      70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one.

      71. These twelve thousand which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four ages, are called one age of the gods."

      The Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Book 12: Santi Parva
      SECTION CCXXXI

      "Computing by the days and nights of human beings about which I have told thee, I shall speak of the day and night of Brahman and his years also. I shall, in their order, tell thee the number of years, that are for different purposes computed differently in respect of the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and the Kali yugas. Four thousand years is the duration of the first or Krita age. The morning of that epoch consists of four hundred years and its evening is of four hundred years. As regards the other yugas, the duration of each gradually decreases by a quarter in respect of both the substantive period with the conjoining portion and the conjoining portion itself. The duration of the Dwapara also is two thousand years, and its morning extends for two hundred years and its evening also for two hundred. The duration of the Kali yuga is one thousand years, and its morning extends for one hundred years, and its evening for one

      The learned say that these twelve thousand years constitute what is called a yuga. A thousand such yugas compose a single day of Brahman."

      So you see that the idea of 12,000 years yuga duration is clearly mentioned in the ancient texts. Many scholars and saints such as Sri Aurobindo, Lokmanya Tilak, Sri Yukteswar etc. also supported the idea of a 12,000 year yuga cycle.

      I have also shown that the 12,000 year yuga cycle, with yuga durations of 2700 years separated by transitional periods of 300 years, closely matches the archaeological and geological records.

      It is, of course, entirely your choice which calculation method you prefer to believe.

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  21. Also you have missed Abhjit nakshatram
    which as 2.5 nazhika bhelam (Strenght) before sunrise. one nazhika equal 24 minutes and one vinazhika 24 seconds.
    In summary there are 28 nakshatram...

    (_)
    http://www.facebook.com/notes/sree-kumar/the-indian-treatiese-having-so-much-scientific-basis-become-the-object-ot-ridicu/445319632181391

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    1. The Abhijit nakshtara occupies roughly 4° of the sky as opposed to the 13° 20' occupied by all the other nakshtras. Hence it is less than 1/3 rd the size of the other nakshatras. It is believed to have been an intercalary nakshatra, which was inserted at the end of the nakshatra list (which started from Shravana in the Golden Age)

      In the current system of 27 nakshatras, the Abhijit nakshatra overlaps with parts of Uttara Ashadha and Shravana nakshtras. Hence, it is already accounted for in the present system of 27 nakshatras, and including it again will result in double counting. The Vedanga Jyotish follows the principle of 27 nakshatras, and most scholars agree with this division.

      The moon traverses each nakshatra in approximately 1 day as a result of which the sidereal lunar month (computed with respect to the fixed stars) is of 27.3 days duration. This is mentioned in our ancient texts as well which say that the Moon has 27 wives with whom he stays for one day in a sidereal lunar month.

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  22. Hello Bibhu,
    James writing here (remember chaos theory ?).
    It just occurred to me that another aspect in the human evolution seems to match the timing discussed in your article, in particular the descending phase. It is quite accepted today that humans' health started to deteriorate with the introduction of grains and agriculture about 10 to 12000 years ago. Tooth decay exploded, problem with bone density and malformation increased, etc. And the climax has been reached more or less today with the so-called diseases of civilization: diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, etc, due to an excess of sugar and grains in one's diet. As you may know, getting back to a so-called ancestral diet (often referred to as "paleo" or "primal" diet) is most of the time triggering gerat health improvements, in particular if one removes wheat entirely from his/her diet. Wheat is so ubiquitous today, in almost all processed foods. Same with sugar. Moreover, livestock are oftentimes overfed with grains, treated with hormones and antibiotics, etc. Animal foods produced from such livestock has quite bad consequences for health. The increase of farming / agriculture / food processing has been exponential, health issues as well (social inequalities notwithstanding). These practices have influenced societal trends (hierarchical societies with concentration of powers), screwed up the environment, accelerated a general dumbing down and has driven humans on the edge of a critical point (global climate, desertification, etc). Another food for thought :)

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  23. Hi James,
    Interesting points. However, I am not so sure we can blame agriculture for all our problems. According to the Yuga Cycle theory, human longetivity, and human capabilities - both physical and mental- deteriorate during the descending phase. But what triggers this deterioration? I would like to think that there might be some cosmic changes - for instance change in the frequency/intensity of light, change in gravitational forces etc. - that triggers this downward spiral.

    Also if you look at all human health parameters over the past two thousand years of the ascending Kali Yuga - human longetivity, mortality, diseases etc. - we are actually on an upward spiral. During the same time both population and agricultural practices have been steadily increasing.

    The current problems of obesity, diabetes, cancer, environmental pollution etc. we face is largely a creation of our own greed, laziness and disregard for the environment. The relentless consumption of processed food, frozen dinners, fried stuff etc. (and now GMO foods) is bound to create health calamities. No point blaming only agriculture and grains for the mess. I still believe in a balanced diet. All good doctors recommend a balanced diet comprising of grains, proteins, fruits and veggies, and all the healthy people I know vouch for that.

    However, large corporations are playing around with the food chain, for their own profits, and in the process destabilizing the environment and destroying human health. But although everyone is willing to point a finger at these corporations, no-one who works there and gets a fat paycheck is willing to leave his job and do something worthwhile. And there's your real problem. Greed and apathy. Everywhere, and at all levels.

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    1. "Greed and apathy", very true, but you forget ADDICTION. These industries are oftentimes "pushers" (e.g. refined sugar). ANd people fall for it because they become "junkies". I broke some food addiction myself and realized how insidious some foods can be. Just the modern strain of wheat (semi-dwarf high yield strain) is a "plague". It is a frankengrain with denatured proteins and sugars that triggers all sorts of conditions from IBS, Celiac, inflammation, brain fog, binge eating disorders, etc. I was shocked when I first realized how my past health disorders all but vanished by eliminating wheat from my diet ... But this is on a tangent with your blog post. I just thought that the increasing agriculture practices and reliances on addictive pseudo food were just other symptoms of a downward evolution. And with agriculture came the stress of preservation (food stores), concentration of wealth, hierarchical societies born out of this power concentration, etc. It is all connected together. And just to close with a small note of disagreement, my opinion is that there is no such thing as a balanced diet for all. Everyone must find his own balance, depending on genetic background, environment, season, etc. And to be honest, I don't think people are healthier today than say 30,000 years ago. Especially western countries where dependence on palliative medicine is huge! But awareness is growing with respect to this basic aspect which is nutrition.

      By the way, if you have not read this guy, it could be of interest to you:
      Charles Eisenstein - The Ascent of Humanity. Lots of food for thoughts in his book. It is available for free online.

      Cheers!
      J.

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    2. Hi James,
      It is true that addiction to junk food is a serious issue, which is getting worse by the day. Unfortunately, the corporate-sponsored governments of the world continue to look the other way even as this health calamity unfolds.

      I also agree with you that the notion of "balanced diet" depends on one's genetics, geographical location and other factors. The best solution is to follow the diet of your ancestors who lived in the same region 2-3 generations back. Those guys were far healthier than us. Even the previous generation was healthier than us.

      However, I do not support the idea of a primal, hunter-gatherer diet, which some folks seem to be recommending. The hunter-gatherer diet is meant for hunter-gatherers, and not for people who lead sedentary city lives. If you live in the forest, and build your own house, and hunt your own food, your metabolic rate will be so high you would be able to digest a truck. But in the city one needs to be more moderate and circumspect about what one consumes.

      It may be true that people who lived 30,000 years ago were healthier than us. But we do not know what kind of ecological conditions prevailed back then - the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, the quality of sunlight, the purity of water, the nutrient content in food etc. So we cant really conclude what could have been the reason for their better health.

      However, we can compare with the folks who lived a 1000 or 2000 years back, since environmental conditions have not changed significantly in this period. And we are, or at least the previous generation was, healthier than the folks who lived 1000 years ago. Is this due to improvement in living conditions? Or due to subtle changes in atmospheric conditions? or due to some unknown cosmic factors (in the ascending Kali Yuga)? I cant say.

      In general, I dont find any fault with agriculture (since the misuse of grains has started only in the past couple of decades), or even with hierarchical agricultural societies, which is necessary for the advancements in the sciences and arts. It is a natural tendency amongst humans to organize themselves in hierarchies. Even in a tribal society, you will find that there exists a very strongly defined hierarchy. I dont find anything wrong with a hierarchy if it is based on knowledge, wisdom, compassion and justice, and provides a structured career path for people based on their individual potential and inclinations.

      The way I see it, the problem is not with hierarchies, or with various systems such as capitalism, socialism etc - but with the corrupt, selfish, egoistic people who inhabit and dominate these structures. Once man falls from his position of grace, everything degrades. Any system inhabited by such people will be polluted. Conversely, in the absence of such people all structures and systems will gravitate towards a state of benevolent humanism.

      In previous eras, when human consciousness was uplifted, such benevolent societies existed. Not any more. Hopefully things will change in future.

      I have read parts of the book "The Ascent of Humanity" and found it very good. Thanks for reminding me. I need to go through the entire book sometime.

      Best,
      Bibhu

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  24. Hello,
    I appreciate your efforts...You might be interested in my article at:www.ancientscienceofmind.blogspot.com
    Your input will be most appreciated.
    Regards

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hi Bibhu,

    Could you respond to this critque of your article :

    "The "great calamities" that supposedly took place during this "transitional period" (976-676 B.C.E) were by no means peculiar or strange and could be found in numerous other periods in history. Nor was there a "global collapse" in civilization; some civilizations were in decline while others were flourishing, just like any other period in history. The Greeks and Anatolians (among others) were in decline while the Assyrians and Nubians (among others) were flourishing. And when the author states that "the Indus Valley civilization finally ended at around 1000 BC", he is conjuring facts out of thin air, for the last vestiges of the IVC had already disappeared several centuries prior to the onset of the so-called "transitional period."

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    1. Hi Virendra,

      The criticism is baseless. Whoever has written this has very little understanding of IVC or World history. A simple fact checking on the internet is sufficient to prove this. Here are the facts:

      1. The Late Harappan Period extended from 1900 BC - 1000 BC. Check the Time Line on Harappa.com: http://www.harappa.com/indus/indus1.html.

      You can also check the IVC page on Wikipedia. The following observation has been made by Jim Shafer: "However, the Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. Current archaeological data suggest that material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. 1000-900 BCE and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey Ware culture." (Shaffer, Jim (1993). "Reurbanization: The eastern Punjab and beyond".)

      2. Check the Wikipedia Page for the Assyrian culture. This is what it says:

      "The period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a dark age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Caucasus, Mediterranean and Balkan regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people.

      Assyria and its empire were not unduly affected by these tumultuous events for some 150 years, perhaps the only ancient power that was not. However, upon the death of Ashur-bel-kala in 1056 BC, Assyria went into a comparative decline for the next 100 or so years. The empire shrank significantly, and by 1020 BC Assyria appears to have controlled only areas close to Assyria itself, essential to keeping trade routes open in eastern Syria, south eastern Asia Minor central Mesopotamia and north western Iran."

      Therefore, Assryria suffered a sudden decline for a period of 100 years from 1056 BC - 9056 BC. It was the only ancient power that was not affected to a very large extent.

      3. I have mentioned in the article that "The period from 1070 BC – 664 BC is known as the “Third Intermediate Period” of Egypt, during which time Egypt was run over and ruled by foreign rulers, and there was political and social disintegration and chaos. Egypt was increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding of the Nile, and famine". This can be easily fact checked by anyone having doubts.

      4. The Olmec civilization also suffered major damages. Again check the Wikipedia page for the Olmec culture: This is what it states: "A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion. The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course."

      5. All of this is in addition to the destruction and calamities in Greece, North Africa and Near East.

      Clearly this was a worldwide collapse of civilization at around the same time i.e. c. 1000 BC, which coincides with the transition from the descending to the ascending Yuga Cycle.

      Delete
  26. Bibhu, I find the contents informative well and researched.

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    1. Thanks for the feedback Bibhu Prasad. I appreciate it.

      Delete
  27. A very informative article sir.
    But why is it that we have the knowledge of the catastrophic events that occurred in 9976 BC but not able to tell what happened in 976 BC - 676 BC? Was it because,as it was the end of the descending kaliyug, people didn't have the know how to record historical events?
    I am talking about Indian people here sir

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    1. Hi Sidhant,
      Good question. I think the answer lies in the fact that the Saptarshis did not appear on earth at the beginning of the ascending Kali Yuga i.e. after 676 BC. As a result we never really recovered from that disruption, and the enormous erosion of knowledge that took place during that period. It is said that the Saptarshis do not appear in the Kali Yuga because of its dense material vibrations. Instead we had the various prophets who provided the moral guidance for the ascending Kali Yuga.
      Things were different at the end of the Golden Age i.e in 9676 BC. At that time not only were the people far more enlightened and capable, but the Saptarshis had also manifested, and they had imparted the entire knowledge of the arts and sciences (including history) to humanity. That information was transmitted through oral traditions for thousands of years.

      Delete
  28. Beginning of each yuga(or atleast it's transitional period) is marked by the death of a Vishnu Avatar.Rama's death started the dwapara yuga.Krishna's death started the kali yuga.And they have been the most prominent Avatars of Vishnu.Is it possible that the Kalki Avatar will become the next most prominent avatar by appearing at the end of this ascending kali yuga?
    Also Gautam Buddha,believed to be the 9th avatar of Vishnu,appeared at the beginning of the present kali yuga.

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    1. Hi Sidhant,
      Good observation. I agree with you. The end of the Kali Yuga, specifically the transitional period, should be marked by the appearance of the Kalki avatar. However, since this is the Kali Yuga, I tend to believe that Kalki shall not be a mortal, but will instead manifest in the form of a celestial object, possibly a comet.

      Delete
    2. Why do you think He will be in the form of a comet,sir? Doesn't the Kalki purana specify the name of His parents,birthplace,horse,pet parrot,weapon and for how many years He is going to rule.Also how can a comet wipe out a part of the human civillisation?

      Delete
    3. There are a few ancient Indian texts which describe Kalki as a comet:

      The Srimad Bhagavatam:

      “Seated on a fast horse named Devadatta, Kalki,
      the lord of all, endowed with eight yogic powers
      and peerless splendour, will course over the earth
      at high velocity, destroying the countless plunderers
      parading as kings.”

      The Gita Govinda, a 12th century work composed by the poet Jayadeva:

      “To route and slaughter the barbarian host,
      brandishing his mighty sword,
      appearing like a comet in his fury,
      Kesava assumes the Kalki form;
      Hail Hari! Lord of the world!
      Appearing like a comet discharging arrows,
      brandishing his sword, he cuts down the barbarian host
      in a mighty conflict 'til all are laid low.
      Hail Kalki avatara! Cause of the world.”

      Dasavatara Stotra, 10th sloka:

      “O Kesava, O Hari, who have assumed the form of Kalki!
      You appear like a comet and carry a terrifying sword for bringing about the annihilation of the wicked barbarian men at the end of the Kali-yuga.”

      I do not think that these are metaphorical descriptions. They may be physically describing the manner in which Kalki will appear. A comet, with its two tails, very closely resembles the image of a person on horseback holding a raised up sword. A comet can get gravitationally disrupted on close approach to the earth, resulting in a rain of meteor fragments which can cause great devastation. Many of the past cataclysms on the earth, including some of the previous mass extinction events, the end of the ice age etc. are believed to have been caused by meteor impacts from comets.
      Kalki is also supposed to come from Shambhala. In Hindu-Buddhist lore Shambhala is an invisible, ideal kingdom located somewhere in the cosmos, populated by superhumans. It has nothing to do with the earth. The names etc. assigned to Kalki does not imply that Kalki has to be mortal. All our gods and goddesses also have names, parents, weapons etc. Besides, a mortal born on earth in the Kali Yuga will simply not have the spiritual and physical powers required to bring about the end of the yuga, and usher in the era of enlightenment.
      This is a very long topic, and I just mentioned the important points briefly. Someday I may write an article on this.

      Delete
    4. Namsaste Punyatama..

      From the same parva few snipnet's for you..
      from
      Every man lived for a thousand years, and every man was blessed with a thousand children.
      This is the age of darkness kali yuga-- shara shari 100 years max .. you cannot equate kali era with other yuga.. Just not possible.

      Eg:: I will quote manu in my next snip--
      During the period of Rama's sway, all men were whole and all men attained the fruition of their wishes. The very women did not quarrel with one another, what need then be said of the men? During his rule his subjects were always devoted to virtue. Contented, crowned with fruition in respect of all the objects of their desire, fearless, free, and wedded to the vow of truth, were all the people when Rama governed the kingdom. The trees always bore flowers and fruit and were subject to no accidents. Every cow yielded milk filling a drona to the brim. Having dwelt, in the observance of severe penances, Rama performed ten Horse-sacrifices (Ashwa Medham should not be considered as Killing Horse - I hope you understand This) of great splendour 1 and to them the freest access was given to all. Possessed of youth, of a dark complexion, with red eyes, he looked like the leader of an elephantine herd. With aims stretching down to his knees and of handsome face, his shoulders were like those of a lion and the might of his arms great. Ascending upon the throne of Ayodhya, he ruled for
      "Ten thousand and ten hundred years"

      Yuvanaswa, the finger of Indra, placed in his mouth, began to yield a jet of milk. Sucking Indra's finger, he grew up into a stout youth in a hundred days,
      In twelve days he looked like one of twelve years " In kali age i would be considered as deformaty

      Gaya also, the son of Amurtarayas, fell a prey to death. For a hundred years, that king subsisted upon the remains of sacrificial food. (Pleased with such devotion) Agni desired to give him boons. The boons solicited by Gaya were, 'Let
      and on every fourth month, for a thousand years, Gaya repeatedly performed the Horse-sacrifice (Ashwa Medham should not be considered as Killing Horse - I hope you understand This) . Rising (at the completion of every sacrifice) he gave away a hundred thousand kine and hundreds of mules (unto the Brahmanas) during this period
      Note the point Thousan years...

      "Narada said, 'I will give back to thee that son of thine, named Suvarnashthivin, whom Parvata gave thee and who has been bereft of life. Of the splendour of gold, that child shall have a thousand years.'"

      Suvarnashthivin of great fame and energy began to delight the hearts of his parents. Of great prowess, he ascended the throne of his father after the latter had repaired to heaven, and ruled for a period of one thousand and one hundred years. He worshippedthe gods in many great sacrifices characterised by profuse presents. Possessed of great splendour, he gratified the gods and the Pitris.

      Delete
    5. Hi,

      In the Dwapara Yuga, Lord Krishna had lived for a little more than a 100 years, some say 125 years. Balarama, and the five Pandava brothers were also of nearly the same age as Krishna, and had therefore lived for nearly 125 years.

      If the average age of people at the end of the Dwapara Yuga was 125 years, then it could not have been very much more at the end of the Treta Yuga when Rama had lived. If you use the 4:3:2:1 ratio, then the average age at the end of the Treta would be approx. 187 years.

      Besides, as per the genealogy of the kings given in the Puranas, there were approx. 25 generations between Rama and Krishna, since Brihadbala, the descendant of Rama, was killed in the Mahabharata War. If we assume that the average period of rule in the Dwapara Yuga was 100 years, then the duration of the Dwapara was close to 2500 years.

      This implies that the duration of the Treta Yuga was also of 2500 years (assuming equal duration of the yugas); or if we apply the 4:3:2:1 rule (which is incorrect, as I have pointed out in the article), the duration of the Treta would be close 3750 years. Rama, who had lived towards the end of the Treta Yuga would have lived for only a fraction of that period.

      Hence, the 10,000 years or thousand years mentioned in various texts are imaginary, inflated numbers,which were added when the original information was forgotten.

      However, I do believe that people in previous yugas lived for longer durations of time. In my opinion the average life periods were 400 years (Satya), 300 years (Treta), 200 years (Dwapara) and 100 years (Kali). For the Kali we can see that the average age is indeed close to 100 years, and for the Dwapara it may have been close to 200 years, since Krishna, Balaram and the Pandava brothers lived for nearly 125 years at the close of the Dwapara Yuga.

      I also believe that since the durations of the lifespans follow the 4:3:2:1 ratio, this was later applied to the yuga durations. However, the yuga cycle was entirely based on the cycle of the Saptarshis. This is clearly indicated by the historical, archaeological and calendrical information.

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    6. The Laws of Manu clearly specifies that the duration of lifespans is 400 years in the Satya Yuga and decreases by a hundred years in each successive yuga. Here are the relevant verses from Chapter 1:

      81. In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness.

      82. In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each).

      83. (Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter.

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  29. If the descending Satya yuga started in 12676 BC,who ruled the earth before that?Also,how do we bring dinosaurs into the picture who lived approximately 230 milllion years ago i.e. approximately 19200 yuga cycles before the current yuga cycle?Can your yuga cycle theory be applied to the time when dinosaurs ruled earth?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi,
      Regarding the dinosaurs,I suggest that you the read the following two articles on my blog:

      1. A Day and Night of Brahma: The Evidence from Fossil Records
      2.The Evolutionary Cycles Of Creation and Catastrophe: The Case for Intelligent Design?

      I believe they will clarify your doubts regarding the applicability of the yuga cycle theory to extended periods of time.

      Regarding the period prior to 12676 BC, we have very little information, either from archaeological sources, or from the ancient texts. Although the ancient texts do talk of some events that took place before the descending yuga cycle, it is difficult to determine the exact timeframe in which those events took place.

      Delete
    2. Dear Bibbu Dev Misra,
      I for one can't wait long for Dwapara Yuga or Krita yuga or whatever yuga that may come, any one of them is better than Kali Yuga;
      you are saying I have to wait 12 more years?
      Whether it is Kalki Deva or Vera Bramhendra or whoever good will come by that time, would have been born by now, right, so where is this person, it would be an honor to meet such person, and I am not sure if I would meet their standards though.

      What is the purpose of life? Why is this world created this way, one life lives on another, we are at the top of the food chain? How can we connect to the super consciousness? Can this happen in Kali Yuga?

      Delete
    3. Hi,
      If we use the Saptarshi Calendar as the basis of the yuga cycle, it means that after 2025 we will enter into a "transitional period" of 300 years, before the next Yuga is fully manifested. This transitional period should be characterized by social, economic, environmental and cosmic changes - resulting in a complete collapse of the Kali Yuga structures, and the emergence of a new way of life. But the entire process will take time.

      The transitional period should also be characterized by the appearance of the Kalki Avatar. However, one cannot say exactly when Kalki will appear and in what form. If you read one of my earlier comments (on June 2, 2013)I have mentioned that I believe that Kalki avatar shall appear in the form of a comet. There is a fair bit of evidence from the ancient texts to arrive at such a hypothesis.

      According to the ancient traditions, the purpose of life is to become "god on earth", through many cycles of birth and death. We become gods when we achieve self-realization - by connecting to the Inner Source, and letting the Inner divinity shine through us. This can happen in any yuga. Lord Buddha himself achieved enlightenment in the Kali Yuga.

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    4. Well if it is going to take 300 years, before next better yuga comes along, what we have is something I will have to live with, the alternative is not good.
      If the purpose of life is to become a god, then how many can achieve that, what about the rest who cannot.
      Why is this world created this way, one life feeds another life, i.e. a lion kills and eats another animal. Why would God create this way?

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    5. The universe will continue until every soul finds its way back to the Creator. There will be no-one left behind.
      On our planet,carnivorous animals represent a tiny fraction of all living organisms. Most of all life forms is in the form of unicellular organisms - bacteria, fungi, algae etc. - which we cannot see. Amongst the visible life forms, plants are the most numerous, followed by herbivores. Carnivores, feeding on other animals, are an exception, and not representative of the cycle of life on earth.
      God gives all of us appropriate bodies with which we can work out our karma. Hence, carnivores get bodies which are necessary for them at that particular stage in their evolution.

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  30. In my understanding of The Sacred Science of Sri Yukteswar as enlightened to him by Sri Babaji Haidakhan, the Kali Yuga is complete and ended around the mid 1700's that also coincides with the Age of Elctricity and Magentism so that we are now - 300 years since the mid 1700's - close to entering the Dwarpara Yuga.

    Previous calculations, due to the inability of mankind to understand the Yugas during the Kali Yuga we off - as you quite rightly have stated.

    It required a Mahaavatar, in the form of Sri Babaji to explain the true meaning of the Yugas to Sri Yukteswar.

    What is your understanding?

    Regards,

    Jaishankar

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    1. Hello Jaishankar,

      I had an extended discussion on this topic with Walter Cruttenden, author of book "The Lost Star", who subscribes to the Yuga Cycle timeline explained by Sri Yukteswar. You may like to check out the discussion here: http://www.grahamhancock.com/phorum/read.php?f=8&i=26249&t=26249

      Yukteswar had assumed the 4:3:2:1 duration of the yugas mentioned in various Sanskrit texts, as well as the 3102 BC date for the start of the Kali Yuga, which has become a part of Indian folklore since the time of Aryabhatta. As I have pointed out in my article, both assumptions are incorrect. The 3102 BC date has no basis in astronomy, and the 4:3:2:1 ratio for the yuga durations (a highly unnatural arithmetic sequence not found in any other culture)was highly disputed, with many ancient astronomers believing in yugas of equal duration.

      Yukteswar's yuga cycle timeline, therefore, is not supported by historical, archaeological or calendrical information. His date for the start date of the Kali Yuga i.e. 499 AD, and the start date of the Dwapara i.e. 1899 AD are not realistic. The time period around 499 AD was by no means the darkest period of the yuga cycle. In fact this was the time of the "Golden Guptas" in India, with enormous progress in various arts and sciences. Yukteswar also said that the ascending Kali Yuga ended in 1699 CE, and the full manifestation of the ascending Dwapara started in 1899 CE, after a 200 year period of transition. The ancient texts, especially the Mahabharata, describes the Dwapara as a time when people were not only highly virtuous (as compared to the Kali Yuga), but they also had tremendous mental capabilities, which enabled them to astral travel, harness the forces of nature by uttering mantras, fly through the air etc. None of these mental capabilities are prevalent in today's world. From the standpoint of human virtue we have actually gone downhill since 1699 CE. Given the darkness and ignorance that pervades the world right now, it would be very difficult to persuade anyone to believe that we are in any other yuga than the Kali Yuga.

      On the other hand if we use the Saptarshi Calendar, with its 2700 year cycle, as the basis of the yuga cycle it shows a very strong correlation to the archaeological, historical and calendrical information. It is a valid calendar used in India for thousands of years, and the Saptarshi's are universally regarded as the enlightened rishis who appear at the beginning of a yuga to promulgate the rules of civilization. In that respect, it can be readily tied to the yuga cycle.

      Many people during the Kali Yuga have followed the information in the Puranas, and other ancient texts and oral traditions, and come to different conclusions regarding the yuga cycle. It would be a mistake to raise any of them to the status of infallibility. The Buddha himself said that everything taught by him should be accepted only if it accords to reason. The same yardstick should be applied to all saintly or scholarly persons. Otherwise, we will develop a narrow, cultic mentality which will retard the search for truth, and give precedence to blind faith over reason, evidence and logic.

      Best,
      Bibhu

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  31. It is understandable that each end of an age on the descending arch will end with a cataclysm or eradication of knowledge, spirituality and civilisation since a rapid decline is on its way. On the other hand it doesnt make sense on an ascending age arch since during this time knowledge and rapid ascent is built up, instead great breakthroughs or insights or revealing historical and scientific discoveries would be more expected. It was a long long time since the previous ascending arch was due so no one could possibly have any insights into what is going to happen especially if this is the first step on the ascending arch that is to come. Thanks Camille

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  32. Hi Camille,
    Good points. Yes, its true that the transitions in the ascending cycle may not be the same as in the descending cycle. As you mentioned, the previous ascending cycle was a long time back, and we do not have any memories of what happened in that cycle.

    Someone else had asked me this question earlier and what I believe is that in the ascending phase every transition should be accompanied by a sudden jump in consciousness, accompanied by higher knowledge and insights. However, what I also think is that this change in consciousness will be brought about by an influx of new energy, from certain cosmic sources. This may bring about changes in our physical, cranial and DNA structures. Our planet too, may have to "readjust" itself to this new energy, resulting in environmental calamities, and civilization collapses.

    The upcoming transition is from the dark, material age of Kali to the spiritual age of the Dwapara. This is equivalent to going from from darkness to dawn or from winter to spring in the smaller cycles. The magnitude of change that is coming is enormous. It is almost unbelievable as per the current paradigm. Therefore,I do expect both physical earth changes, as well as rapid consciousness changes, in the coming period of transition.

    Regarding the transitions after that - from the Dwapara to the Treta, and from the Treta to the Satya - the transitions may not be all that disruptive. However, we will be far better placed to answer those questions once we are in the Dwapara, and have access to higher mental faculties and wisdom. For the time being, we do not have adequate knowledge, nor is it very necessary, to speculate on the nature of those future transitions.

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  33. Radhe Radhe

    Article is thought provoking, but it lacks one basic element - either you follow Vedic text to suggest something conclusive or completely ignore it giving modern views. Hybrid introspection can be a good read but not conclusive. How come the Yuga cycles differ as seen in article here http://haribhakt.com/four-yugas-satya-treta-dwapar-kaliyuga/ with your article, which is based on pure Vedic texts.

    Thanks

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    Replies
    1. Hello,
      Thanks for your feedback. In my perspective, the hybrid approach is the best way to find the answers. There is nothing called a "pure Vedic text" anymore. Most of the Sanskrit texts were written down between the 1st - 10th centuries AD, and they contain many interpolations i.e.late additions, modifications etc. This is agreed upon by most scholars. In addition, a considerable amount of information has been lost. For instance, the original Vedas had 1,180 branches of which only 7 or 8 are now remembered.

      The yuga cycle timelines that are given in the link you have specified have been mentioned in many of the Puranas. I have given a detailed argument in the article stating why those numbers are incorrect. Perhaps you can refer to the article for my opinion on this matter.

      Given the current state of affairs, we need to take a cross-cultural look (since the Vedic wisdom was once dispersed throughout the world), and we also need to take the helpof history, archaeology, astronomy,and other modern disciplines to find the answers to these questions. I am not claiming that my interpretation is the correct one, or that everyone needs to be convinced of it. However, it is a potential solution, and it has many factors in its favour, especially from the historical, archaeological and calendrical perspectives.

      Best,
      Bibhu

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  34. Good article, may I suggest an excellent book on the cycle of times
    "WHILE THE GODS PLAY" author; Alain Danielou.

    Indepth record on the Kali Yuga (puranas) and especially on the
    "twilight of the Kali Yuga" (started in 1945 when the 1st atomic
    bomb was detonated) when the knowledge of the gods is "stolen"
    (splitting the atom and genetic egineering) and the effects thereoff.

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    1. Thanks for suggesting the book. I was not aware that Alain Danielou has also written on the yuga cycles. It sounds interesting, and I shall try to take a look.

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  35. Your research was EXCELLENT . I have one doubt. In Satya Yuga there was no hatred, or vanity, or evil thought whatsoever; no sorrow. But Narasimha, the half-man/half-lion appeared in the Satya Yuga to kill Hiranyakashipu (An evil person lived in Satya Yuga).

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    1. Thanks for your positive feedback. Regarding your question, my feeling is that Hiranyakashipu may have lived towards the end of the Satya yuga. The end of a yuga is always characterized by a sudden loss of morality and powers of judgement. Hiranyakashipu was himself a great asura, who had performed severe penances to please Brahma. Therefore, for him to behave in such an absurd manner shows a loss of mental capabilities triggered by an inflated ego . Similar events also took place at the end of the Treta when Ravana, who was otherwise a highly accomplished person, behaved irrationally under the influence of a bloated ego, and at the end of the Dwapara when Duryodhana behaved likewise. In addition, Vishnu always appears in the form of an Avatar towards the close of a yuga. So he appeared as Narashimha in Satya Yuga, Rama in Treta, and Krishna in Dwapara. As we know, he is prophesized to appear as Kalki at the end of the Kali Yuga .

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  36. Read one of my close friend's blog its simply great like him - http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/

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    1. Hi, thanks for the link. I will surely check it out.

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  37. An excellent article, with well researched and well presented arguments. It has given me much food for thought. Thank you.

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    1. Thank you. I enjoyed going through your blog posts as well!

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  38. hi bibhu
    A very interesting thing that I had noted in my life is that we see the world as We want to see. And in support of that we search numerous things and give them as proofs and presents a lot of controversial things from nowhere.
    You had written that 4:3:2:1 is erroneous, How can it be possible?

    You had written that Aryabhatta believed that all yugas are of equal duration, I suggest you that please read original aryabhatiya in sanskrit written by him. He had nowhere written yugs are of equal duration. Please don't interpret directly from English translations which have been modified under colonial rule (as you had described Kalki as comet). Also in one older translation in english in 1930 of Clarke, he has also mentioned that there is no indication of yugas of equal duration as hypothesized by Brahmagupta. But Clarke's translation has one more problem of 60*60 yrs that i writing in next paragraph.

    You had written about the age of aryabhatta is of 23 yrs old while writing in aryabhatiya. If a person is writing a text like aryabhatiya it is supposed to be grammatically correct. It may be possible that people in colonial rule had modified the original sanskrit in Aryabhatiya. You know as per one comment above that he is of 23 yrs old while writing aryabhatiya
    and he is in 60*60 yrs of kaliyug but it should be acutually 6*60 yrs in 'Shastyabdanam Shadbhiryada vyateetastra yascha yuga padah' but here it is interpreted as 'Shastyabdanam Shasti' and thus lead to the conclusion of 60*60 which is grammatically incorrect in writing this verse. I have a document which can explain you in detail how this is incorrect.

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  39. hi again,
    Again it depends on you what you want to believe as you had written that you don't believe of aryabhatta's existense in BCE.
    Adi shankara is said to be born in modern history in 778 CE, as he has referred Dharamkirti in his texts which in turn is also referenced by a chinese traveller. But there can be two dharamkirtis and huen Tsang belong to a much later date. My point in including it is that Sri Chitsukhhacharya who was the disciple of Adi Shankara and written about him in 'The Brihat-Sankara—Vijaya' that he was born in 2593 years of kali as you can see here in-
    tishyae prayaatya nalasaevadhi baaNanaetrae |
    yae naMdanae dinamaNaa vudagadhvabhaaji |
    raadhae ditae ruDuvinirgatamangalagnae |
    syaahootavaan Sivaguruah sacha SaMkaraeti ||

    You can see the above verse from http://trueindianhistory-kvchelam.blogspot.in/2009/04/age-of-sri-adi-sankaracharya.html

    It means that he was born on around 509 BCE. The above 4,32,000 years duration of kali yug is too old. Although I am also curious to know about the age of kaliyug that's why i am seeing your blog.

    It is true that Yukteshwar Giri's dates have no references of 24,000 years that how he derived these dates and according to his calculations actually dwapara is the present age. In this your statement is right in your article. I have downloaded Holy science and after seeing it properly, I can know his basis in more detail but personally 24,000 yrs according to me is not known anywhere else.

    The dates and the thinking proposed by Tilak in the Arctic home of the Vedas has no firm ground. How did he deduce it? It is futile to give his reference. It seems that he is indirectly supporting Aryan Invasion theory as proposed by Max Mueller.

    You had written the mahabharat war to be 3711 BCE. But accorfing Dr. S.Balakrishna of NASA who had tried to search the two occurence of 2 eclipses in 13 days in Mahabharat the date is around 3129 BCJ. You can check about him on his simulation on the software at http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1052
    and there is also reference to other dates on http://ignca.nic.in/nl002503.htm

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    1. 1. Aryabhatta, Paulisa and other astronomers of his time believed in yugas of equal duration as specified in "Alberuni's India". I have clearly mentioned this in the article. Yugas of equal duration of 3000 years can also be found in Zoroastrian accounts of the world ages. 4:3:2:1 ratio indicates the manner in which Dharma and the duration of lifespans decrease over the Yuga cycle, as specified in the Laws of Manu. Evidently, this was later applied to the yuga cycle, and incorporated in most texts.

      2. The argument for a BCE date for Aryabhatta is very flimsy, as I have mentioned in an earlier comment, and not backed by any written document. However, there is a valid argument for Shankaracharya being born in the 5th century BCE. This is a controversial topic, with strong arguments on both sides, and I dont have any specific opinion on the matter as of now. However, this has no bearing on the Yuga Cycle dates I have proposed here.

      3. The Yuga Cycle is of 12000 years as specified in the Mahabharata and the Laws of Manu. In addition, the yuga cycle sequence reverses itself as per the traditions of the Jains and the Greeks. This can be intuitively understood since all cycles of time move in ascending and descending cycles. This leads to a 24000 year Yuga Cycle period, as stated by Yukteswar, which is closely aligned to the Precessional Year.

      4. Tilak was one of the most reknowned Sanskrit scholars of the past century. His opinion carries a lot of weight. If you disregard him, it makes little difference to anyone.

      5.I have given two probable dates for the Mahabharata - 3711 BC (i.e. 35 years prior to 3676 BC) or 4011 BC (i.e. 35 years prior to 3976 BC, the beginning of the transitional period). There have been many attempts to date the Bharata war using astronomical alignments, with dates ranging from 5000 BC - 1000 BC. S. Balakrishna's dating is incorrect as pointed out by other scholars, since neither of the two eclipses he mentions could be seen from Kurukshetra. Besides, any dating attempt using eclipse data alone, is not going to give correct results, due to the uncertainties involved, the Delta T problem etc. Many scholars including Balakrishna, Achar etc. have not looked beyond 3500 BCE for dates of the Bharata War. They should be looking at least till 4200 BCE. However,I am not a great fan of determining past dates using astronomical software because of the uncertainities involved in the calculations. Besides,one can cherry pick data points, interpret them to one's own convenience, and thereby validate any date of one's liking. I have used archaeological, geological and calendrical evidence is support of the Yuga Cycle timeline I have proposed here, which is much more scientific, authentic and verifiable.

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  40. Dear Sir,
    This article is excellent.
    May I ask you a question: is there any information in the scriptures about earth gravity changes through the Yugas, since we know there were times when gigantism prevailed?
    Also, as the gravity is related to the Earth diameter, can we assume the fact that the size of the Earth varies through Yugas?

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    1. Hello,
      Interesting points. I believe that its possible that the earth's gravity has fluctuated over time, as a result of which human beings and animals with larger bodies were present on the earth in the past. Even during the last ice age we had massive wooly mammoths and sabre toothed tigers - species which are no longer found today.

      As to what may cause this gravitational fluctuation is uncertain. The factors involved in the gravitational force equation are mass i.e. volume*density, radius and the gravitational constant G. Any of these may be fluctuating over time i.e. the earth's diameter may change, its average density may change, or the gravitational constant G may not really be a constant over time, and may have small fluctuations around a mean value.

      We dont know what determines the value of the gravitational constant G. Currently it is emperically determined. Perhaps there are cosmic factors which determines its value, and when these cosmic factors change during the yuga cycle, G also changes. I am more inclined to believe that instead of the diameter or density of the earth changing, it is the gravitational constant G which changes over time.

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  41. dear sir, i have heard a lot of people on the internet talking about the aryan invasion, i don't understand any of it, could you please explain what really happened ? thank you, and keep up the great work

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    1. Hello,
      When the Indus Valley civilization collapsed at around 1900 BC, there was a migration of various Vedic tribes in all directions. Many of them entered the Gangetic plains and moved southwards along the coastal areas. The current civilization of India is, therefore, a legacy of the Vedic culture of the Indus Valley. However, during the colonial period there was an effort to show that the high culture of India, and the Sanskrit language, was brought into India by a horde of nomadic "Aryan" tribes who came from some unknown location in Central Asia, close to Eastern Europe. There is no linguistic, historical, archaeological or genetic evidence in favour of such a hypothesis, and it has been widely discarded now. If you want to know more details you can refer to the various articles on this matter on the internet.

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